Double-wall carbon nanotube hybrid mode-locker in Tm-doped fibre laser: a novel mechanism for robust bound-state solitons generation

Maria Chernysheva*, Anastasia Bednyakova, Mohammed Al Araimi, Richard C.T. Howe, Guohua Hu, Tawfique Hasan, Alessio Gambetta, Gianluca Galzerano, Mark Ruemmeli, Aleksey Rozhin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The complex nonlinear dynamics of mode-locked fibre lasers, including a broad variety of dissipative structures and self-organization effects, have drawn significant research interest. Around the 2 μm band, conventional saturable absorbers (SAs) possess small modulation depth and slow relaxation time and, therefore, are incapable of ensuring complex inter-pulse dynamics and bound-state soliton generation. We present observation of multi-soliton complex generation in mode-locked thulium (Tm)-doped fibre laser, using double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT-SA) and nonlinear polarisation evolution (NPE). The rigid structure of DWNTs ensures high modulation depth (64%), fast relaxation (1.25 ps) and high thermal damage threshold. This enables formation of 560-fs soliton pulses; two-soliton bound-state with 560 fs pulse duration and 1.37 ps separation; and singlet+doublet soliton structures with 1.8 ps duration and 6 ps separation. Numerical simulations based on the vectorial nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation demonstrate a transition from single-pulse to two-soliton bound-states generation. The results imply that DWNTs are an excellent SA for the formation of steady single- and multi-soliton structures around 2 μm region, which could not be supported by single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The combination of the potential bandwidth resource around 2 μm with the soliton molecule concept for encoding two bits of data per clock period opens exciting opportunities for data-carrying capacity enhancement.
Original languageEnglish
Article number44314
Number of pages11
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 13 Mar 2017

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2017. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit

Funding: EU Horizon2020 Marie S.-Curie IF MINDFLY project; Russian Science Foundation (grant 14-21-00110); Ministry of Higher Education Sultanate of Oman; Royal Academy of Engineering Fellowship (Graphlex); the Marie-Curie International Research Staff Exchange Scheme “TelaSens” project (Research Executive Agency Grant No. 269271, Programme: FP7-PEOPLE-2010-IRSES and
European Research Council through the FP7-IDEAS-ERC grant ULTRALASER).


Dive into the research topics of 'Double-wall carbon nanotube hybrid mode-locker in Tm-doped fibre laser: a novel mechanism for robust bound-state solitons generation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this