Using a panel of Irish manufacturing plants over the period 1991-2008 we test for dynamic complementarities in the joint use of internal R&D and external knowledge sources. We find little evidence, either from considering successive cross-sectional waves of comparable surveys, or in terms of the strategy switch choices of specific plants, that there has been a systematic move towards the joint use of internal and external knowledge in innovation. We then test formally for the presence of complementarities in the joint use of internal R&D and external innovation linkages. In static terms we find no evidence of complementarity, but in dynamic terms find evidence that strategy switches by individual plants towards a more 'open' strategy are accompanied by increased innovation outputs.
Bibliographical note© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
Funding: ESRC (RES-062-23-2767).
- dynamic complementarities
- innovation strategies
- ppen innovation