Abstract The surface compositions of food powders created from spray drying solutions containing various ratios of sodium caseinate, maltodextrin and soya oil have been analysed by Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis. The results show significant enrichment of oil at the surface of particles compared to the bulk phase and, when the non-oil components only are considered, a significant surface enrichment of sodium caseinate also. The degree of surface enrichment of both oil and sodium caseinate was found to increase with decreasing bulk levels of the respective components. Surface enrichment of oil was also affected by processing conditions (emulsion drop size and drying temperature), but surface enrichment of sodium caseinate was relatively insensitive to these. The presence of "pock marks" on the particle surfaces strongly suggests that the surface oil was caused by rupturing of emulsion droplets at the surface as the surrounding matrix contracts and hardens.
Bibliographical note© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Funding: EPSRC (EP/G042527/1) to Loughborough University
- electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
- sodium caseinate
- soya oil
- X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy