Effectiveness of performance appraisal: an integrated framework

Muhammad Zahid Iqbal, Saeed Akbar*, Pawan Budhwar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Based on a robust analysis of the existing literature on performance appraisal (PA), this paper makes a case for an integrated framework of effectiveness of performance appraisal (EPA). To achieve this, it draws on the expanded view of measurement criteria of EPA, i.e. purposefulness, fairness and accuracy, and identifies their relationships with ratee reactions. The analysis reveals that the expanded view of purposefulness includes more theoretical anchors for the purposes of PA and relates to various aspects of human resource functions, e.g. feedback and goal orientation. The expansion in the PA fairness criterion suggests certain newly established nomological networks, which were ignored in the past, e.g. the relationship between distributive fairness and organization-referenced outcomes. Further, refinements in PA accuracy reveal a more comprehensive categorization of rating biases. Coherence among measurement criteria has resulted in a ratee reactions-based integrated framework, which should be useful for both researchers and practitioners.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)510-533
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Journal of Management Reviews
Issue number4
Early online date31 Oct 2014
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2015

Bibliographical note

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Iqbal, M. Z., Akbar, S., & Budhwar, P. (2015). Effectiveness of performance appraisal: an integrated framework. International journal of management reviews, 17(4), 510-533, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12050. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.


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