Effects of glutathione, N-acetyl-cysteine, α-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid on the cytotoxicity of a 2-pyridylcarboxamidrazone antimycobacterial agent in human mononuclear leucocytes in vitro

Michael D. Coleman*, Nazish Khan, Graham Welton, Peter A. Lambert, Katy J. Tims, Daniel L. Rathbone

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A series of antioxidants was used to explore the cytotoxicity of one particularly toxic antimycobacterial 2-pyridylcarboxamidrazone anti-tuberculosis agent against human mononuclear leucocytes (MNL), in comparison with isoniazid (INH) to aid future compound design. INH caused a significant reduction of nearly 40% in cell recovery compared with control (P < 0.0001), although the co-incubation with either glutathione (GSH, 1 mM) or (NAC, 1 mM) showed abolition of INH toxicity. In contrast, the addition of GSH or NAC 1 h after INH failed to protect the cells from INH toxicity (P < 0.0001). The 2-pyridyl-carboxamidrazone 'Compound 1' caused a 50% reduction in cell recovery compared with control (P < 0.001), although this was abolished by the presence of either GSH or NAC. A 1 h post incubation with either NAC or GSH after Compound 1 addition failed to protect the cells from toxicity (P < 0.001). Co-administration of lipoic acid (LA) abolished Compound 1-mediated toxicity, although again, this effect did not occur after LA addition 1 h post incubation with Compound 1 (P < 0.001). However, co-administration of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) prevented Compound 1-mediated cell death when incubated with the compound and also after 1 h of Compound 1 alone. Pre-treatment with GSH, then removal of the antioxidant resulted in abolition of Compound 1 toxicity (vehicle control, 63.6 ± 16.7 versus Compound 1 alone 26.1 ± 13.6% versus GSH pre-treatment, 65.7 ± 7.3%). In a cell-free incubation, NMR analysis revealed that GSH does not react with Compound 1, indicating that this agent is not likely to directly deplete membrane thiols. Compound 1's MNL toxicity is more likely to be linked with changes in cell membrane conformation, which may induce consequent thiol depletion that is reversible by exogenous thiols. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)143-148
Number of pages6
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Volume17
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2004

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Acetylcysteine
Mononuclear Leukocytes
Thioctic Acid
Cytotoxicity
Cysteine
Toxicity
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Sulfhydryl Compounds
Antioxidants
Poisons
Isoniazid
Recovery
Glutathione
Cell death
Cell membranes
Tuberculosis
Cell Death
Cell Membrane
Conformations
dihydrolipoic acid

Keywords

  • 2-Pyridyl-amidrazone
  • cytotoxicity
  • DHLA
  • GSH
  • human
  • leucocytes

Cite this

@article{4aad84a73d2746e08bd3188bdf10617d,
title = "Effects of glutathione, N-acetyl-cysteine, α-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid on the cytotoxicity of a 2-pyridylcarboxamidrazone antimycobacterial agent in human mononuclear leucocytes in vitro",
abstract = "A series of antioxidants was used to explore the cytotoxicity of one particularly toxic antimycobacterial 2-pyridylcarboxamidrazone anti-tuberculosis agent against human mononuclear leucocytes (MNL), in comparison with isoniazid (INH) to aid future compound design. INH caused a significant reduction of nearly 40{\%} in cell recovery compared with control (P < 0.0001), although the co-incubation with either glutathione (GSH, 1 mM) or (NAC, 1 mM) showed abolition of INH toxicity. In contrast, the addition of GSH or NAC 1 h after INH failed to protect the cells from INH toxicity (P < 0.0001). The 2-pyridyl-carboxamidrazone 'Compound 1' caused a 50{\%} reduction in cell recovery compared with control (P < 0.001), although this was abolished by the presence of either GSH or NAC. A 1 h post incubation with either NAC or GSH after Compound 1 addition failed to protect the cells from toxicity (P < 0.001). Co-administration of lipoic acid (LA) abolished Compound 1-mediated toxicity, although again, this effect did not occur after LA addition 1 h post incubation with Compound 1 (P < 0.001). However, co-administration of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) prevented Compound 1-mediated cell death when incubated with the compound and also after 1 h of Compound 1 alone. Pre-treatment with GSH, then removal of the antioxidant resulted in abolition of Compound 1 toxicity (vehicle control, 63.6 ± 16.7 versus Compound 1 alone 26.1 ± 13.6{\%} versus GSH pre-treatment, 65.7 ± 7.3{\%}). In a cell-free incubation, NMR analysis revealed that GSH does not react with Compound 1, indicating that this agent is not likely to directly deplete membrane thiols. Compound 1's MNL toxicity is more likely to be linked with changes in cell membrane conformation, which may induce consequent thiol depletion that is reversible by exogenous thiols. {\circledC} 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "2-Pyridyl-amidrazone, cytotoxicity, DHLA, GSH, human, leucocytes",
author = "Coleman, {Michael D.} and Nazish Khan and Graham Welton and Lambert, {Peter A.} and Tims, {Katy J.} and Rathbone, {Daniel L.}",
year = "2004",
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language = "English",
volume = "17",
pages = "143--148",
journal = "Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology",
issn = "1382-6689",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of glutathione, N-acetyl-cysteine, α-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid on the cytotoxicity of a 2-pyridylcarboxamidrazone antimycobacterial agent in human mononuclear leucocytes in vitro

AU - Coleman, Michael D.

AU - Khan, Nazish

AU - Welton, Graham

AU - Lambert, Peter A.

AU - Tims, Katy J.

AU - Rathbone, Daniel L.

PY - 2004/7

Y1 - 2004/7

N2 - A series of antioxidants was used to explore the cytotoxicity of one particularly toxic antimycobacterial 2-pyridylcarboxamidrazone anti-tuberculosis agent against human mononuclear leucocytes (MNL), in comparison with isoniazid (INH) to aid future compound design. INH caused a significant reduction of nearly 40% in cell recovery compared with control (P < 0.0001), although the co-incubation with either glutathione (GSH, 1 mM) or (NAC, 1 mM) showed abolition of INH toxicity. In contrast, the addition of GSH or NAC 1 h after INH failed to protect the cells from INH toxicity (P < 0.0001). The 2-pyridyl-carboxamidrazone 'Compound 1' caused a 50% reduction in cell recovery compared with control (P < 0.001), although this was abolished by the presence of either GSH or NAC. A 1 h post incubation with either NAC or GSH after Compound 1 addition failed to protect the cells from toxicity (P < 0.001). Co-administration of lipoic acid (LA) abolished Compound 1-mediated toxicity, although again, this effect did not occur after LA addition 1 h post incubation with Compound 1 (P < 0.001). However, co-administration of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) prevented Compound 1-mediated cell death when incubated with the compound and also after 1 h of Compound 1 alone. Pre-treatment with GSH, then removal of the antioxidant resulted in abolition of Compound 1 toxicity (vehicle control, 63.6 ± 16.7 versus Compound 1 alone 26.1 ± 13.6% versus GSH pre-treatment, 65.7 ± 7.3%). In a cell-free incubation, NMR analysis revealed that GSH does not react with Compound 1, indicating that this agent is not likely to directly deplete membrane thiols. Compound 1's MNL toxicity is more likely to be linked with changes in cell membrane conformation, which may induce consequent thiol depletion that is reversible by exogenous thiols. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

AB - A series of antioxidants was used to explore the cytotoxicity of one particularly toxic antimycobacterial 2-pyridylcarboxamidrazone anti-tuberculosis agent against human mononuclear leucocytes (MNL), in comparison with isoniazid (INH) to aid future compound design. INH caused a significant reduction of nearly 40% in cell recovery compared with control (P < 0.0001), although the co-incubation with either glutathione (GSH, 1 mM) or (NAC, 1 mM) showed abolition of INH toxicity. In contrast, the addition of GSH or NAC 1 h after INH failed to protect the cells from INH toxicity (P < 0.0001). The 2-pyridyl-carboxamidrazone 'Compound 1' caused a 50% reduction in cell recovery compared with control (P < 0.001), although this was abolished by the presence of either GSH or NAC. A 1 h post incubation with either NAC or GSH after Compound 1 addition failed to protect the cells from toxicity (P < 0.001). Co-administration of lipoic acid (LA) abolished Compound 1-mediated toxicity, although again, this effect did not occur after LA addition 1 h post incubation with Compound 1 (P < 0.001). However, co-administration of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) prevented Compound 1-mediated cell death when incubated with the compound and also after 1 h of Compound 1 alone. Pre-treatment with GSH, then removal of the antioxidant resulted in abolition of Compound 1 toxicity (vehicle control, 63.6 ± 16.7 versus Compound 1 alone 26.1 ± 13.6% versus GSH pre-treatment, 65.7 ± 7.3%). In a cell-free incubation, NMR analysis revealed that GSH does not react with Compound 1, indicating that this agent is not likely to directly deplete membrane thiols. Compound 1's MNL toxicity is more likely to be linked with changes in cell membrane conformation, which may induce consequent thiol depletion that is reversible by exogenous thiols. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

KW - 2-Pyridyl-amidrazone

KW - cytotoxicity

KW - DHLA

KW - GSH

KW - human

KW - leucocytes

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U2 - 10.1016/j.etap.2004.04.002

DO - 10.1016/j.etap.2004.04.002

M3 - Article

VL - 17

SP - 143

EP - 148

JO - Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology

JF - Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology

SN - 1382-6689

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