Electroless Nickel Deposition: An Alternative for Graphene Contacting

Sinziana M. Popescu, Anders J. Barlow, Sami Ramadan, Srinivas Ganti, Biswajit Ghosh, John Hedley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

We report the first investigation into the potential of electroless nickel deposition to form ohmic contacts on single layer graphene. To minimize the contact resistance on graphene, a statistical model was used to improve metal purity, surface roughness, and coverage of the deposited film by controlling the nickel bath parameters (pH and temperature). The metalized graphene layers were patterned using photolithography and contacts deposited at temperatures as low as 60 °C. The contact resistance was 215 ± 23 ω over a contact area of 200 μm × 200 μm, which improved upon rapid annealing to 107 ± 9 ω. This method shows promise toward low-cost and large-scale graphene integration into functional devices such as flexible sensors and printed electronics.

LanguageEnglish
Pages31359-31367
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume8
Issue number45
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Oct 2016

Fingerprint

Graphite
Nickel
Graphene
Contact resistance
Ohmic contacts
Photolithography
Electronic equipment
Surface roughness
Metals
Annealing
Temperature
Sensors
Costs

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY)
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium,
provided the author and source are cited.

Keywords

  • contact resistance
  • contacting graphene
  • electroless nickel
  • interface characterization
  • transmission line method

Cite this

Popescu, Sinziana M. ; Barlow, Anders J. ; Ramadan, Sami ; Ganti, Srinivas ; Ghosh, Biswajit ; Hedley, John. / Electroless Nickel Deposition : An Alternative for Graphene Contacting. In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 2016 ; Vol. 8, No. 45. pp. 31359-31367.
@article{1cf9d65bdcdc491fa71304168fea7bb8,
title = "Electroless Nickel Deposition: An Alternative for Graphene Contacting",
abstract = "We report the first investigation into the potential of electroless nickel deposition to form ohmic contacts on single layer graphene. To minimize the contact resistance on graphene, a statistical model was used to improve metal purity, surface roughness, and coverage of the deposited film by controlling the nickel bath parameters (pH and temperature). The metalized graphene layers were patterned using photolithography and contacts deposited at temperatures as low as 60 °C. The contact resistance was 215 ± 23 ω over a contact area of 200 μm × 200 μm, which improved upon rapid annealing to 107 ± 9 ω. This method shows promise toward low-cost and large-scale graphene integration into functional devices such as flexible sensors and printed electronics.",
keywords = "contact resistance, contacting graphene, electroless nickel, interface characterization, transmission line method",
author = "Popescu, {Sinziana M.} and Barlow, {Anders J.} and Sami Ramadan and Srinivas Ganti and Biswajit Ghosh and John Hedley",
note = "This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.",
year = "2016",
month = "10",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1021/acsami.6b08290",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
pages = "31359--31367",
journal = "ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces",
issn = "1944-8244",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "45",

}

Electroless Nickel Deposition : An Alternative for Graphene Contacting. / Popescu, Sinziana M.; Barlow, Anders J.; Ramadan, Sami; Ganti, Srinivas; Ghosh, Biswajit; Hedley, John.

In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol. 8, No. 45, 21.10.2016, p. 31359-31367.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Electroless Nickel Deposition

T2 - ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces

AU - Popescu, Sinziana M.

AU - Barlow, Anders J.

AU - Ramadan, Sami

AU - Ganti, Srinivas

AU - Ghosh, Biswajit

AU - Hedley, John

N1 - This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.

PY - 2016/10/21

Y1 - 2016/10/21

N2 - We report the first investigation into the potential of electroless nickel deposition to form ohmic contacts on single layer graphene. To minimize the contact resistance on graphene, a statistical model was used to improve metal purity, surface roughness, and coverage of the deposited film by controlling the nickel bath parameters (pH and temperature). The metalized graphene layers were patterned using photolithography and contacts deposited at temperatures as low as 60 °C. The contact resistance was 215 ± 23 ω over a contact area of 200 μm × 200 μm, which improved upon rapid annealing to 107 ± 9 ω. This method shows promise toward low-cost and large-scale graphene integration into functional devices such as flexible sensors and printed electronics.

AB - We report the first investigation into the potential of electroless nickel deposition to form ohmic contacts on single layer graphene. To minimize the contact resistance on graphene, a statistical model was used to improve metal purity, surface roughness, and coverage of the deposited film by controlling the nickel bath parameters (pH and temperature). The metalized graphene layers were patterned using photolithography and contacts deposited at temperatures as low as 60 °C. The contact resistance was 215 ± 23 ω over a contact area of 200 μm × 200 μm, which improved upon rapid annealing to 107 ± 9 ω. This method shows promise toward low-cost and large-scale graphene integration into functional devices such as flexible sensors and printed electronics.

KW - contact resistance

KW - contacting graphene

KW - electroless nickel

KW - interface characterization

KW - transmission line method

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84996605465&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/acsami.6b08290

DO - 10.1021/acsami.6b08290

M3 - Article

VL - 8

SP - 31359

EP - 31367

JO - ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces

JF - ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces

SN - 1944-8244

IS - 45

ER -