Biomimetic hydroxyapatite was synthesized by the controlled release of calcium and phosphate ions from poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (poly(NIPAAm-co-AA)) nanogels. Mixing nanogels containing calcium chloride (CaCl2 ·2H2O) and nanogels containing sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4·2H2O) in simulated body fluid (SBF) at physiological conditions of 37 °C and pH 7.4, biomimetic hydroxyapatite was obtained. By studying separately the loading and controlled release of the salts from the nanogels, adequate conditions were chosen to synthesize the hydroxyapatite: Calcium loaded (Ca-loaded) nanogels (1000 mg/ml; 400:3) and inorganic phosphate loaded (Pi-loaded) nanogels (90 mg/ml; 12:1) in a ratio of 2:1 were placed in SBF solution. The obtained powders characterization showed that a low crystalline and substituted hydroxyapatite similar to bone apatite was formed. Such a strategy could be used in medical and dental procedures to induce rapid inorganic mineral formation from a nanogel-containing biomaterial.