Encapsulation of propolis extracts in aqueous formulations by using nanovesicles of lipid and poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid)

Chatmani Buachi, Charothar Thammachai, Brian J. Tighe, Paul D. Topham, Robert Molloy, Patchara Punyamoonwongsa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bee propolis has been used in alternative medicine to treat various diseases. Due to its limited water solubility, it is often used in combination with alcohol solvents, causing skin irritation and immune response. To solve this, the new drug delivery system, based on the lipid nanodiscs of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphochline (DMPC) and poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA), were created in an aqueous media. At the excess polymer concentrations, the PSMA/DMPC complexation produced the very fine nanoparticles (18 nm). With the increased molar ratio of styrene to maleic acid (St/MA) in the copolymer structure, the lipid nanodisc showed the improved encapsulation efficiency (EE%), comparing to their corresponding aqueous formulations. The maximum value had reached to around 20% when using the 2:1 PSMA precursor. Based on the cytotoxicity test, these nanoparticles were considered to be non-toxic over the low dose administration region (
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)192-204
Number of pages13
JournalArtificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Issue number1
Early online date13 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The terms on which this article has been published allow the posting of the Accepted Manuscript in a repository by the author(s) or with their consent.

Funding: This work was financially supported by the National Research Council of Thailand (No. 622B01056), Mae Fah Luang University. One of our authors (Chatmani Buachi) acknowledged the Postgraduate Scholarship from Mae Fah Luang University. The authors thank Scientific and Technological Instrument Centre (Mae Fah Luang University) for their laboratory facilities, as well as the Science and Technology Service Centre (Chiang Mai University) for their cell culture service. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 871650 (MEDIPOL).


  • Nanodiscs
  • biomimetic
  • drug delivery
  • propolis
  • styrene maleic acid
  • nanoencapsulation


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