The concept of soft state (i.e., the state that will expire unless been refreshed) has been widely used in the design of network signaling protocols. The approaches of refreshing state in multi-hop networks can be classified to end-to-end (E2E) and hop-by-hop (HbH) refreshes. In this article we propose an effective Markov chain based analytical model for both E2E and HbH refresh approaches. Simulations verify the analytical models, which can be used to study the impacts of link characteristics on the performance (e.g., state synchronization and message overhead), as a guide on configuration and optimization of soft state signaling protocols.
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- signaling protocol
- soft state
- Markov chain