In this paper, we use plant-level data from two Indian industries, namely, electrical machinery and textiles, to examine the empirical relationship between structural reforms like abandonment of entry restrictions to the product market, competition and firm-level productivity and efficiency. These industries have faced different sets of policies since Independence but both were restricted in the adoption of technology and in the development of optimal scales of production. They also belonged to the first set of industries that benefited from the liberalization process started in the 1980s. Our results suggest that both the industries have improved their efficiency and scales of operation by the turn of the century. However, the process of adjustment seems to have been worked out more fully for electrical machinery. We also find evidence of spatial fragmentation of the market as late as 2000–2001. Gains in labour productivity were much more evident in states that either have a strong history of industrial activity or those that have experienced significant improvements in business environment since 1991.
- electrical machinery