Specification and analysis of complex systems can be approached top-down or bottom-up . A top-down approach conceptualises a system using a global state and the behaviour represented using an aggregated macro-behaviour of the system elements. For example, the System Dynamics (SD) model  uses the concepts of stocks, flows, feedback loops and time delays. A top-down approach considers a reductionist view  to understand system using the mathematical rigour from operational research, optimization theory, and sophisticated AI algorithms. A bottom-up approach, in contrast, considers the micro-behaviour of individual elements and their interactions. Conceptually, the bottom-up approach relies on emergentism  as advocated in actor model of computation , and agent-based systems .
|Name||Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)|
|Conference||15th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, PAAMS 2017|
|Period||21/06/17 → 23/06/17|