De-inking sludge can be converted into useful forms of energy to provide economic and environmental benefits. In this study, pyrolysis oil produced from de-inking sludge through an intermediate pyrolysis technique was blended with biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil, and tested in a multi-cylinder indirect injection type CI engine. The physical and chemical properties of pyrolysis oil and its blends (20 and 30 vol.%) were measured and compared with those of fossil diesel and pure biodiesel (B100). Full engine power was achieved with both blends, and very little difference in engine performance and emission results were observed between 20% and 30% blends. At full engine load, the brake specific fuel consumption on a volume basis was around 6% higher for the blends when compared to fossil diesel. The brake thermal efficiencies were about 3-6% lower than biodiesel and were similar to fossil diesel. Exhaust gas emissions of the blends contained 4% higher CO2 and 6-12% lower NOx, as compared to fossil diesel. At full load, CO emissions of the blends were decreased by 5-10 times. The cylinder gas pressure diagram showed stable engine operation with the 20% blend, but indicated minor knocking with 30% blend. Peak cylinder pressure of the 30% blend was about 5-6% higher compared to fossil diesel. At full load, the peak burn rate of combustion from the 30% blend was about 26% and 12% higher than fossil diesel and biodiesel respectively. In comparison to fossil diesel the combustion duration was decreased for both blends; for 30% blend at full load, the duration was almost 12% lower. The study concludes that up to 20% blend of de-inking sludge pyrolysis oil with biodiesel can be used in an indirect injection CI engine without adding any ignition additives or surfactants.
Bibliographical noteNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Nuclear Materials. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Hossain, AK, Ouadi, M, Siddiqui, SU, Yang, Y, Brammer, J, Hornung, A, Kay, M & Davies, PA 2012, 'Experimental investigation of performance, emission and combustion characteristics of an indirect injection multi-cylinder CI engine fuelled by blends of de-inking sludge pyrolysis oil with biodiesel' Fuel, In Press (2012) DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.05.007
Funding: EPSRC industrial CASE award; Research Councils (UK); DST (Government of India) under the Science Bridges programme [EP/G039992/1]
- CI engine
- de-inking sludge
- pyrolysis oil