Exploring confusion in product ciphers through regression analysis

Vasilios Katos*, Bernard Doherty

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    This paper investigates the modelling of confusion in product encryption by statistical means, to support understanding of the avalanche effect of the continuous application of an encryption step or round. To facilitate the modelling, a metric for confusion is proposed and its appropriateness and properties verified against broadly accepted theoretical assumptions. The regression analysis showed that confusion can be approximated by well-known econometrics functions.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1789-1795
    Number of pages7
    JournalInformation Sciences
    Issue number8
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2007


    • Confusion metric
    • Statistical cryptography


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