Exploring confusion in product ciphers through regression analysis

Vasilios Katos*, Bernard Doherty

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper investigates the modelling of confusion in product encryption by statistical means, to support understanding of the avalanche effect of the continuous application of an encryption step or round. To facilitate the modelling, a metric for confusion is proposed and its appropriateness and properties verified against broadly accepted theoretical assumptions. The regression analysis showed that confusion can be approximated by well-known econometrics functions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1789-1795
Number of pages7
JournalInformation Sciences
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2007


  • Confusion metric
  • Statistical cryptography


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