Factors Contributing to Haze Pollution: Evidence from Macao, China

Wai-Ming To, Peter Lee, Chi Ng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Haze is a major environmental concern in many cities because it adversely affects people’s physiological and psychological well-being. This paper examines the extent of haze in Macao during the period 1986–2016. It identifies the relationships between haze, energy use, and meteorological conditions directly. The haze in Macao changed over the period 1986–2016 with air pollution getting worse and then improving after 2007. Specifically, the number of haze hours increased from 3 in 1986 to 766 in 2007, and then dropped to 57 in 2016, while the total energy use increased from 12,246 TJ in 1986 to 37,144 TJ in 2007, and then to 42,405 TJ in 2016. As per primary energy, Macao used 12,096 TJ in 1986, 21,388 TJ in 2007, and 16,647 TJ in 2016 excluding aviation kerosene. Bivariate correlations show that haze was most positively and significantly associated with annual primary energy use. Multiple regression analysis indicates that the number of hours with haze was significantly, positively related to the consumption of gas oil/diesel, fuel oil, and natural gas in Macao and aviation kerosene. Nevertheless, the improvement in Macao could come at a cost to areas in downwind of Zhuhai’s coal power stations supplying Macao’s electricity energy.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1352
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 7 Sept 2017


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