Formulation design considerations for oral vaccines

Jitinder Wilkhu, Sarah E. McNeil, Daniel J. Kirby, Yvonne Perrie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Whilst oral vaccination is a potentially preferred route in terms of patient adherence and mass vaccination, the ability to formulate effective oral vaccines remains a challenge. The primary barrier to oral vaccination is effective delivery of the vaccine through the GI tract owing to the many obstacles it presents, including low pH, enzyme degradation and bile-salt solubilization, which can result in breakdown/deactivation of a vaccine. For effective immune responses after oral administration, particulates need to be taken up bythe M cells however, these are few in number. To enhance M-cell uptake, particle characteristics can be optimized with particle size, surface charge, targeting groups and bioadhesive properties all being considerations. Yet improved uptake may not translate into enhanced immune responses and formulating particulates with inherent adjuvant properties can offer advantages. Within this article, we establish the options available for consideration when building effective oral particulate vaccines.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1141-1164
Number of pages24
JournalTherapeutic Delivery
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2011


Dive into the research topics of 'Formulation design considerations for oral vaccines'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this