From Balancing to Bandwagoning: Evaluating the Impact of the Sanction Regime on North Korea–Africa Relationships

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Abstract

Purpose—The DPRK has maintained an extensive array of foreign relationships
over the past decades, both for political and economic gains. This article evaluates
the impact of the current sanction regime on the DPRK’s activities with African
countries.
Design/Methodology/Approach—The analysis is conducted by using a bespoke
behavior framework based on Stephen Walt’s “balance of threat” theory. This framework
develops the concepts of balancing, defensive bandwagoning, and opportunistic
bandwagoning as potential behaviors of African states following the imposition of
United Nations Security Council Resolutions to sanction North Korea from 2006
until 2017.
Findings—Evidence suggests that some long- standing relationships based on
military and economic cooperation have been severed in recent years; thus, it supports
a general balancing behavior. Findings also suggest that a specific group of
countries subscribe to new opportunistic and defensive bandwagoning by embarking
on talks and partnerships in the fields of health and science, regardless of the sanction
regime, signaling defiance against Western- led world order.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9-33
Number of pages25
JournalNorth Korean Review
Volume15
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2019

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sanction
regime
economic cooperation
world order
North Korea
Western world
threat
methodology
science
health
economics
Group
Sanctions
Economics
Imposition
Threat
Methodology
Africa
Defiance
Health

Bibliographical note

This article was originally published in North Korean Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, Spring 2019 by McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.

Cite this

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title = "From Balancing to Bandwagoning: Evaluating the Impact of the Sanction Regime on North Korea–Africa Relationships",
abstract = "Purpose—The DPRK has maintained an extensive array of foreign relationshipsover the past decades, both for political and economic gains. This article evaluatesthe impact of the current sanction regime on the DPRK’s activities with Africancountries.Design/Methodology/Approach—The analysis is conducted by using a bespokebehavior framework based on Stephen Walt’s “balance of threat” theory. This frameworkdevelops the concepts of balancing, defensive bandwagoning, and opportunisticbandwagoning as potential behaviors of African states following the imposition ofUnited Nations Security Council Resolutions to sanction North Korea from 2006until 2017.Findings—Evidence suggests that some long- standing relationships based onmilitary and economic cooperation have been severed in recent years; thus, it supportsa general balancing behavior. Findings also suggest that a specific group ofcountries subscribe to new opportunistic and defensive bandwagoning by embarkingon talks and partnerships in the fields of health and science, regardless of the sanctionregime, signaling defiance against Western- led world order.",
author = "Grzelczyk, {Virginie M}",
note = "This article was originally published in North Korean Review, Vol. 15, No. 1, Spring 2019 by McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.",
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AB - Purpose—The DPRK has maintained an extensive array of foreign relationshipsover the past decades, both for political and economic gains. This article evaluatesthe impact of the current sanction regime on the DPRK’s activities with Africancountries.Design/Methodology/Approach—The analysis is conducted by using a bespokebehavior framework based on Stephen Walt’s “balance of threat” theory. This frameworkdevelops the concepts of balancing, defensive bandwagoning, and opportunisticbandwagoning as potential behaviors of African states following the imposition ofUnited Nations Security Council Resolutions to sanction North Korea from 2006until 2017.Findings—Evidence suggests that some long- standing relationships based onmilitary and economic cooperation have been severed in recent years; thus, it supportsa general balancing behavior. Findings also suggest that a specific group ofcountries subscribe to new opportunistic and defensive bandwagoning by embarkingon talks and partnerships in the fields of health and science, regardless of the sanctionregime, signaling defiance against Western- led world order.

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