By exploiting the polarization-sensitive coupling effect of graphene with the optical mode, we investigate the polarization modulation properties of a hybrid waveguide of graphene-integrated excessively tilted fiber grating (Ex-TFG). The theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the real and imaginary parts of complex refractive index of fewlayer graphene exhibit different effects on transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) cladding modes of the Ex-TFG, enabling stronger absorption in the TE mode and more wavelength shift in the TM mode. Furthermore, the surrounding refractive index can modulate the complex optical constant of graphene and then the polarization properties of the hybrid waveguide, such as resonant wavelength and peak intensity. Therefore, the unique polarization tuning property induced by the integration of the graphene layer with Ex-TFG may endow potential applications in all-in-one fiber modulators, fiber lasers, and biochemical sensors.
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Funding: Marie Skłodowska-Curie Individual Fellowships in the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme (660648); National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (61505165); Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (2016JQ6032).