Aim: To systematically review the available literature on the prevalence and clinical characteristics of headache in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS), a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by the chronic presence of motor and vocal tics. Design: We conducted a systematic literature review of original studies using three clinical databases (Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo), according to the standards outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Outcome measures included both tic severity and tic frequency. Results: Our systematic literature review identified six studies on the prevalence and characteristics of headache in patients with TS (data on paediatric patients were available from five studies and data on adult patients from four studies). The proportion of patients with TS who had a diagnosis of headache ranged from 29% to 62%. Migraine was the most commonly investigated headache disorder in this patient population. The findings of the reviewed studies showed that the prevalence of migraine in patients with TS ranges between 13% and 43% and is significantly higher compared to the two control groups (p < 0.05). Discussion: The prevalence of headache in patients with TS could be higher than in the general population, with the most reliable data being available for migraine. Overall, the literature on the prevalence and characteristics of headache in TS is sparse and highly heterogeneous. Further research on the prevalence and clinical correlates of migraine, tension-type headache and other types of headache in patients with TS across the lifespan is needed to inform clinical practice aimed at improving health-related quality of life in patients with tics.
|Publication status||Published - 1 Apr 2020|
- Tourette syndrome
- tension-type headache