Heparanase and COX-2 expression as predictors of lymph node metastasis in large, high-grade breast tumors

Stephanie Gawthorpe, James E. Brown, Muhammad Arif, Peter Nightingale, Alan Nevill, Amtul R. Carmichael

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background/Aim: Heparanase (HPA) contributes to breast cancer metastasis by facilitating the breakdown of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix. High expression of HPA is thought to be associated with increased nodal involvement and poor survival in patients with breast cancer. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in breast cancer is associated with indicators of poor prognosis such as lymph node metastasis, poor differentiation, and large tumor size. The underlying mechanism by which HPA and COX-2 overexpression increases the metastatic potential of breast cancer is not fully-understood. To enhance our understanding over these mechanisms, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the size of the tumor and HPA expression, tumor grade as well as lymph node status in patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis of HPA and COX-2 expression was performed on 246 breast tumor samples. The expression of HPA was correlated with COX-2 expression, tumor grade, lymph node status, oestrogen receptor status. Results: The overexpression of HPA and COX-2 was associated with increased likelihood of lymph node positivity in large, high-grade tumors. High-grade tumors with size greater than 20 mm, that overexpressed HPA, were 4-times more likely to be associated with lymph node involvement (OR 4.71, CI 1.21-18.25). Whereas, tumors greater than 20 mm in size were 5-times more likely to metastasize to the regional lymph nodes, if associated with overexpression of COX-2 (OR 5.5, CI 1.2-24.8). Conclusion: Expression of HPA appears to be a key mechanism by which large, highgrade breast tumors metastasize to regional lymph nodes, while COX-2 overexpression may be an independent predictor of lymph node positivity.

LanguageEnglish
Pages2797-2800
Number of pages4
JournalAnticancer Research
Volume34
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2014

Fingerprint

Cyclooxygenase 2
Lymph Nodes
Breast Neoplasms
Neoplasm Metastasis
Neoplasms
heparanase
Basement Membrane
Estrogen Receptors
Extracellular Matrix
Survival

Bibliographical note

Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • breast cancer
  • heparanase
  • lymph nodes
  • tumor grade

Cite this

Gawthorpe, S., Brown, J. E., Arif, M., Nightingale, P., Nevill, A., & Carmichael, A. R. (2014). Heparanase and COX-2 expression as predictors of lymph node metastasis in large, high-grade breast tumors. Anticancer Research, 34(6), 2797-2800.
Gawthorpe, Stephanie ; Brown, James E. ; Arif, Muhammad ; Nightingale, Peter ; Nevill, Alan ; Carmichael, Amtul R. / Heparanase and COX-2 expression as predictors of lymph node metastasis in large, high-grade breast tumors. In: Anticancer Research. 2014 ; Vol. 34, No. 6. pp. 2797-2800.
@article{91213b4509a74c3fb443c43d7dd10762,
title = "Heparanase and COX-2 expression as predictors of lymph node metastasis in large, high-grade breast tumors",
abstract = "Background/Aim: Heparanase (HPA) contributes to breast cancer metastasis by facilitating the breakdown of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix. High expression of HPA is thought to be associated with increased nodal involvement and poor survival in patients with breast cancer. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in breast cancer is associated with indicators of poor prognosis such as lymph node metastasis, poor differentiation, and large tumor size. The underlying mechanism by which HPA and COX-2 overexpression increases the metastatic potential of breast cancer is not fully-understood. To enhance our understanding over these mechanisms, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the size of the tumor and HPA expression, tumor grade as well as lymph node status in patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis of HPA and COX-2 expression was performed on 246 breast tumor samples. The expression of HPA was correlated with COX-2 expression, tumor grade, lymph node status, oestrogen receptor status. Results: The overexpression of HPA and COX-2 was associated with increased likelihood of lymph node positivity in large, high-grade tumors. High-grade tumors with size greater than 20 mm, that overexpressed HPA, were 4-times more likely to be associated with lymph node involvement (OR 4.71, CI 1.21-18.25). Whereas, tumors greater than 20 mm in size were 5-times more likely to metastasize to the regional lymph nodes, if associated with overexpression of COX-2 (OR 5.5, CI 1.2-24.8). Conclusion: Expression of HPA appears to be a key mechanism by which large, highgrade breast tumors metastasize to regional lymph nodes, while COX-2 overexpression may be an independent predictor of lymph node positivity.",
keywords = "breast cancer, heparanase, lymph nodes, tumor grade",
author = "Stephanie Gawthorpe and Brown, {James E.} and Muhammad Arif and Peter Nightingale and Alan Nevill and Carmichael, {Amtul R.}",
note = "Copyright{\circledC} 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.",
year = "2014",
month = "6",
day = "30",
language = "English",
volume = "34",
pages = "2797--2800",
journal = "Anticancer Research",
issn = "0250-7005",
publisher = "International Institute of Anticancer Research",
number = "6",

}

Gawthorpe, S, Brown, JE, Arif, M, Nightingale, P, Nevill, A & Carmichael, AR 2014, 'Heparanase and COX-2 expression as predictors of lymph node metastasis in large, high-grade breast tumors' Anticancer Research, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 2797-2800.

Heparanase and COX-2 expression as predictors of lymph node metastasis in large, high-grade breast tumors. / Gawthorpe, Stephanie; Brown, James E.; Arif, Muhammad ; Nightingale, Peter; Nevill, Alan; Carmichael, Amtul R.

In: Anticancer Research, Vol. 34, No. 6, 30.06.2014, p. 2797-2800.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Heparanase and COX-2 expression as predictors of lymph node metastasis in large, high-grade breast tumors

AU - Gawthorpe, Stephanie

AU - Brown, James E.

AU - Arif, Muhammad

AU - Nightingale, Peter

AU - Nevill, Alan

AU - Carmichael, Amtul R.

N1 - Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

PY - 2014/6/30

Y1 - 2014/6/30

N2 - Background/Aim: Heparanase (HPA) contributes to breast cancer metastasis by facilitating the breakdown of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix. High expression of HPA is thought to be associated with increased nodal involvement and poor survival in patients with breast cancer. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in breast cancer is associated with indicators of poor prognosis such as lymph node metastasis, poor differentiation, and large tumor size. The underlying mechanism by which HPA and COX-2 overexpression increases the metastatic potential of breast cancer is not fully-understood. To enhance our understanding over these mechanisms, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the size of the tumor and HPA expression, tumor grade as well as lymph node status in patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis of HPA and COX-2 expression was performed on 246 breast tumor samples. The expression of HPA was correlated with COX-2 expression, tumor grade, lymph node status, oestrogen receptor status. Results: The overexpression of HPA and COX-2 was associated with increased likelihood of lymph node positivity in large, high-grade tumors. High-grade tumors with size greater than 20 mm, that overexpressed HPA, were 4-times more likely to be associated with lymph node involvement (OR 4.71, CI 1.21-18.25). Whereas, tumors greater than 20 mm in size were 5-times more likely to metastasize to the regional lymph nodes, if associated with overexpression of COX-2 (OR 5.5, CI 1.2-24.8). Conclusion: Expression of HPA appears to be a key mechanism by which large, highgrade breast tumors metastasize to regional lymph nodes, while COX-2 overexpression may be an independent predictor of lymph node positivity.

AB - Background/Aim: Heparanase (HPA) contributes to breast cancer metastasis by facilitating the breakdown of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix. High expression of HPA is thought to be associated with increased nodal involvement and poor survival in patients with breast cancer. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in breast cancer is associated with indicators of poor prognosis such as lymph node metastasis, poor differentiation, and large tumor size. The underlying mechanism by which HPA and COX-2 overexpression increases the metastatic potential of breast cancer is not fully-understood. To enhance our understanding over these mechanisms, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the size of the tumor and HPA expression, tumor grade as well as lymph node status in patients with breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis of HPA and COX-2 expression was performed on 246 breast tumor samples. The expression of HPA was correlated with COX-2 expression, tumor grade, lymph node status, oestrogen receptor status. Results: The overexpression of HPA and COX-2 was associated with increased likelihood of lymph node positivity in large, high-grade tumors. High-grade tumors with size greater than 20 mm, that overexpressed HPA, were 4-times more likely to be associated with lymph node involvement (OR 4.71, CI 1.21-18.25). Whereas, tumors greater than 20 mm in size were 5-times more likely to metastasize to the regional lymph nodes, if associated with overexpression of COX-2 (OR 5.5, CI 1.2-24.8). Conclusion: Expression of HPA appears to be a key mechanism by which large, highgrade breast tumors metastasize to regional lymph nodes, while COX-2 overexpression may be an independent predictor of lymph node positivity.

KW - breast cancer

KW - heparanase

KW - lymph nodes

KW - tumor grade

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84906311517&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://ar.iiarjournals.org/content/34/6/2797.abstract

M3 - Article

VL - 34

SP - 2797

EP - 2800

JO - Anticancer Research

T2 - Anticancer Research

JF - Anticancer Research

SN - 0250-7005

IS - 6

ER -

Gawthorpe S, Brown JE, Arif M, Nightingale P, Nevill A, Carmichael AR. Heparanase and COX-2 expression as predictors of lymph node metastasis in large, high-grade breast tumors. Anticancer Research. 2014 Jun 30;34(6):2797-2800.