In the framework of novel medical paradigm the red blood cells (RBCs) have a great potential to be used as drug delivery carriers. This approach requires an ultimate understanding of the peculiarities of mutual interaction of RBC influenced by nano-materials composed the drugs. Optical tweezers (OT) is widely used to explore mechanisms of cells’ interaction with the ability to trap non-invasively, manipulate and displace living cells with a notably high accuracy. In the current study, the mutual interaction of RBC with polymeric nano-capsules (NCs) is investigated utilizing a two-channel OT system. The obtained results suggest that, in the presence of NCs, the RBC aggregation in plasma satisfies the ‘cross-bridges’ model. Complementarily, the allocation of NCs on the RBC membrane was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while for assessment of NCs-induced morphological changes the tests with the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) was performed. The combined application of OT and advanced microscopy approaches brings new insights into the conception of direct observation of cells interaction influenced by NCs for the estimation of possible cytotoxic effects.
Bibliographical note© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Funding: EDUFI Fellowship (TM-17-10370, TM-18-10820, T.A.), Oulun yliopiston apuraharahasto, No. 20180107, Suomen Kulttuurirahasto (grant No. 00190188, T.A.), CIMO Fellowship (TM-15-9729, Y.T.), EDUFI Fellowship (TM-17-10389, Y.T.), Academy of Finland (project no. 326126, Y.T.), China Scholarship Council (CSC No. 201706410089, R.Z.), Tauno Tönning Foundation (grant No. 20190104, R.Z.), Academy of Finland (grant No. 290596, 314369, 326126, A.B., A.P.).
- polymeric nanocapsules
- red blood cells
- optical tweezers
- SEM; optical microscopy
- mesenchymal stem cells