The impairments of cerebral blood flow microcirculation brought on by cardiac and respiratory arrest were assessed with multi-modal diagnostic facilities, utilising laser speckle contrast imaging, fluorescence spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results of laser speckle contrast imaging show a notable reduction of cerebral blood flow in small and medium size vessels during a few minutes of respiratory arrest, while the same effect was observed in large sinuses and their branches during the circulatory cessation. Concurrently, the redox ratio assessed with fluorescence spectroscopy indicates progressing hypoxia, NADH accumulation and increase of FAD consumption. The results of diffuse reflectance spectra measurements display a more rapid grow of the perfusion of deoxygenated blood in case of circulatory impairment. In addition, consequent histopathological analysis performed by using new tissue staining procedure developed in-house. It shows notably higher reduction of size of the neurons due to their wrinkling within brain tissues influenced by circulation impair. Whereas, the brain tissues altered with the respiratory arrest demonstrate focal perivascular oedema and mild hypoxic changes of neuronal morphology. Thus, the study suggests that consequences of a cessation of cerebral blood flow become more dramatic and dangerous compare to respiratory arrest.
Bibliographical note© 2021 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.
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Funding: The authors disclose receipt of ﬁnancial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article as fol-lowing: G.P. and S.K. acknowledge the support from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation withing the framework of State support for the creation and development of World-Class research Centres “Digital Biodesign and Personalized Healthcare” No 075-15-2020-926.V.D. kindly acknowledges personal support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 839888.A.D. and I.M. acknowledge funding from the Academy of Fin-land (grant No. 326204). This work has been also partially supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No.863214- NEUROPA project.
- brain imaging
- cardiac cessation
- cerebral blood flow
- laser speckle contrast
- respiratory arrest