In vivo measurement of regional variation in anterior scleral resistance to Schiotz indentation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: Recent studies indicate that ocular and scleral rigidity is pertinent to our understanding of glaucoma, age related macular degeneration and the development and pathogenesis of myopia. The principal method of measuring ocular rigidity is by extrapolation of data from corneal indentation tonometry (Ko) using Friedenwald’s transformation algorithms. Using scleral indentation (Schiotz tonometry) we assess whether regional variations in resistance to indentation occur in vivo across the human anterior globe directly, with reference to the deflection of Schiotz scale readings.
Methods: Data were collected from both eyes of 26 normal young adult subjects with a range of refractive error (mean spherical equivalent ± S.D. of -1.77 D ± 3.28 D, range -10.56 to +4.38 D). Schiotz tonometry (5.5 g & 7.5 g) was performed on the cornea and four scleral quadrants; supero-temporal (ST) and -nasal (SN), infero-temporal (IT) and -nasal (IN) approximately 8 mm posterior to the limbus.
Results: Values of Ko (mm3)-1 were consistent with those previously reported (mean 0.0101 ± 0.0082, range 0.0019–0.0304). In regards to the sclera, significant differences (p < 0.001) were found across quadrants with indentation readings for both loads between means for the cornea and ST; ST and SN; ST and IT, ST and IN. Mean (±S.D.) scale readings for 5.5 g were: cornea 5.93 ± 1.14, ST 8.05 ± 1.58, IT 7.03 ± 1.86, SN 6.25 ± 1.10, IN 6.02 ± 1.49; and 7.5 g: cornea 9.26 ± 1.27, ST 11.56 ± 1.65, IT 10.31 ± 1.74, SN 9.91 ± 1.20, IN 9.50 ± 1.56.
Conclusions: Significant regional variation was found in the resistance of the anterior sclera to indentation produced by the Schiotz tonometer.
LanguageEnglish
Pages437-443
Number of pages7
JournalOphthalmic and Physiological Optics
Volume31
Issue number5
Early online date19 Apr 2011
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2011

Fingerprint

Nose
Cornea
Manometry
Reading
Sclera
Refractive Errors
Myopia
Macular Degeneration
Glaucoma
Young Adult

Keywords

  • adolescent
  • adult
  • analysis of variance
  • cornea
  • female
  • humans
  • intraocular pressure
  • macular degeneration
  • male
  • myopia
  • reference values
  • sclera
  • ocular tonometry
  • young adult

Cite this

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title = "In vivo measurement of regional variation in anterior scleral resistance to Schiotz indentation",
abstract = "Purpose: Recent studies indicate that ocular and scleral rigidity is pertinent to our understanding of glaucoma, age related macular degeneration and the development and pathogenesis of myopia. The principal method of measuring ocular rigidity is by extrapolation of data from corneal indentation tonometry (Ko) using Friedenwald’s transformation algorithms. Using scleral indentation (Schiotz tonometry) we assess whether regional variations in resistance to indentation occur in vivo across the human anterior globe directly, with reference to the deflection of Schiotz scale readings.Methods: Data were collected from both eyes of 26 normal young adult subjects with a range of refractive error (mean spherical equivalent ± S.D. of -1.77 D ± 3.28 D, range -10.56 to +4.38 D). Schiotz tonometry (5.5 g & 7.5 g) was performed on the cornea and four scleral quadrants; supero-temporal (ST) and -nasal (SN), infero-temporal (IT) and -nasal (IN) approximately 8 mm posterior to the limbus.Results: Values of Ko (mm3)-1 were consistent with those previously reported (mean 0.0101 ± 0.0082, range 0.0019–0.0304). In regards to the sclera, significant differences (p < 0.001) were found across quadrants with indentation readings for both loads between means for the cornea and ST; ST and SN; ST and IT, ST and IN. Mean (±S.D.) scale readings for 5.5 g were: cornea 5.93 ± 1.14, ST 8.05 ± 1.58, IT 7.03 ± 1.86, SN 6.25 ± 1.10, IN 6.02 ± 1.49; and 7.5 g: cornea 9.26 ± 1.27, ST 11.56 ± 1.65, IT 10.31 ± 1.74, SN 9.91 ± 1.20, IN 9.50 ± 1.56.Conclusions: Significant regional variation was found in the resistance of the anterior sclera to indentation produced by the Schiotz tonometer.",
keywords = "adolescent, adult, analysis of variance, cornea, female, humans, intraocular pressure, macular degeneration, male, myopia, reference values, sclera, ocular tonometry, young adult",
author = "Hetal Patel and Bernard Gilmartin and Cubbidge, {Robert P.} and Logan, {Nicola S.}",
note = "Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics {\circledC} 2011 The College of Optometrists.",
year = "2011",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1111/j.1475-1313.2011.00840.x",
language = "English",
volume = "31",
pages = "437--443",
journal = "Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics",
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}

TY - JOUR

T1 - In vivo measurement of regional variation in anterior scleral resistance to Schiotz indentation

AU - Patel, Hetal

AU - Gilmartin, Bernard

AU - Cubbidge, Robert P.

AU - Logan, Nicola S.

N1 - Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

PY - 2011/9

Y1 - 2011/9

N2 - Purpose: Recent studies indicate that ocular and scleral rigidity is pertinent to our understanding of glaucoma, age related macular degeneration and the development and pathogenesis of myopia. The principal method of measuring ocular rigidity is by extrapolation of data from corneal indentation tonometry (Ko) using Friedenwald’s transformation algorithms. Using scleral indentation (Schiotz tonometry) we assess whether regional variations in resistance to indentation occur in vivo across the human anterior globe directly, with reference to the deflection of Schiotz scale readings.Methods: Data were collected from both eyes of 26 normal young adult subjects with a range of refractive error (mean spherical equivalent ± S.D. of -1.77 D ± 3.28 D, range -10.56 to +4.38 D). Schiotz tonometry (5.5 g & 7.5 g) was performed on the cornea and four scleral quadrants; supero-temporal (ST) and -nasal (SN), infero-temporal (IT) and -nasal (IN) approximately 8 mm posterior to the limbus.Results: Values of Ko (mm3)-1 were consistent with those previously reported (mean 0.0101 ± 0.0082, range 0.0019–0.0304). In regards to the sclera, significant differences (p < 0.001) were found across quadrants with indentation readings for both loads between means for the cornea and ST; ST and SN; ST and IT, ST and IN. Mean (±S.D.) scale readings for 5.5 g were: cornea 5.93 ± 1.14, ST 8.05 ± 1.58, IT 7.03 ± 1.86, SN 6.25 ± 1.10, IN 6.02 ± 1.49; and 7.5 g: cornea 9.26 ± 1.27, ST 11.56 ± 1.65, IT 10.31 ± 1.74, SN 9.91 ± 1.20, IN 9.50 ± 1.56.Conclusions: Significant regional variation was found in the resistance of the anterior sclera to indentation produced by the Schiotz tonometer.

AB - Purpose: Recent studies indicate that ocular and scleral rigidity is pertinent to our understanding of glaucoma, age related macular degeneration and the development and pathogenesis of myopia. The principal method of measuring ocular rigidity is by extrapolation of data from corneal indentation tonometry (Ko) using Friedenwald’s transformation algorithms. Using scleral indentation (Schiotz tonometry) we assess whether regional variations in resistance to indentation occur in vivo across the human anterior globe directly, with reference to the deflection of Schiotz scale readings.Methods: Data were collected from both eyes of 26 normal young adult subjects with a range of refractive error (mean spherical equivalent ± S.D. of -1.77 D ± 3.28 D, range -10.56 to +4.38 D). Schiotz tonometry (5.5 g & 7.5 g) was performed on the cornea and four scleral quadrants; supero-temporal (ST) and -nasal (SN), infero-temporal (IT) and -nasal (IN) approximately 8 mm posterior to the limbus.Results: Values of Ko (mm3)-1 were consistent with those previously reported (mean 0.0101 ± 0.0082, range 0.0019–0.0304). In regards to the sclera, significant differences (p < 0.001) were found across quadrants with indentation readings for both loads between means for the cornea and ST; ST and SN; ST and IT, ST and IN. Mean (±S.D.) scale readings for 5.5 g were: cornea 5.93 ± 1.14, ST 8.05 ± 1.58, IT 7.03 ± 1.86, SN 6.25 ± 1.10, IN 6.02 ± 1.49; and 7.5 g: cornea 9.26 ± 1.27, ST 11.56 ± 1.65, IT 10.31 ± 1.74, SN 9.91 ± 1.20, IN 9.50 ± 1.56.Conclusions: Significant regional variation was found in the resistance of the anterior sclera to indentation produced by the Schiotz tonometer.

KW - adolescent

KW - adult

KW - analysis of variance

KW - cornea

KW - female

KW - humans

KW - intraocular pressure

KW - macular degeneration

KW - male

KW - myopia

KW - reference values

KW - sclera

KW - ocular tonometry

KW - young adult

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U2 - 10.1111/j.1475-1313.2011.00840.x

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M3 - Article

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JO - Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics

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JF - Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics

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