Biosensors based on nanotechnology are developing rapidly and are widely applied in many fields including biomedicine, environmental monitoring, national defense and analytical chemistry, and have achieved vital positions in these fields. Novel nano-materials are intensively developed and manufactured for potential biosensing and theranostic applications while lacking comprehensive assessment of their potential health risks. The integration of diagnostic in vivo biosensors and the DDSs for delivery of therapeutic drugs holds an enormous potential in next-generation theranostic platforms. Controllable, precise, and safe delivery of diagnostic biosensing devices and therapeutic agents to the target tissues, organs, or cells is an important determinant in developing advanced nanobiosensor-based theranostic platforms. Particularly, inspired by the comprehensive biological investigations on the red blood cells (RBCs), advanced strategies of RBC-mediated in vivo delivery have been developed rapidly and are currently in different stages of transforming from research and design to pre-clinical and clinical investigations. In this review, the RBC-mediated delivery of in vivo nanobiosensors for applications of bio-imaging at the single-cell level, advanced medical diagnostics, and analytical detection of biomolecules and cellular activities are presented. A comprehensive perspective of the technical framework of the state-of-the-art RBC-mediated delivery systems is explained in detail to inspire the design and implementation of advanced nanobiosensor-based theranostic platforms taking advantage of RBC-delivery modalities.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was partially funded by the China Scholarship Council ( CSC No. 201706410089, R.Z. ), STSM Grant from COST Action CA 17,140 ″Cancer Nanomedicine from the Bench to the Bedside” supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) (grant No. ECOST-STSM-CA17140-230,919-113049, R.Z. ). EDUFI Fellowship ( TM-17-10,370, TM-18-10,820, T.A. ) and Suomen Kulttuurirahasto (grant No. 00190188, T.A. ). The authors also acknowledge the contribution of Russian Science Foundation (Projects: 19-72-30012 and 20-64-46003 ). I.M. acknowledges partial support from the Academy of Finland (project 325,097 ), MEPhI Academic Excellence Project (Contract No. 02. a03.21.0005 ) and the National Research Tomsk State University Academic D.I. Mendeleev Fund Program .
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- Drug delivery
- Mediated delivery
- Red blood cells