AIM: To describe a 10-year follow-up of children (<16y) with acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) from a UK-wide prospective surveillance study.
METHOD: Diagnoses were retrieved from the patients' records via the patients' paediatric or adult neurologist using a questionnaire. Demyelinating phenotypes at follow-up were classified by an expert review panel.
RESULTS: Twenty-four out of 125 (19.2%) children (64 males, 61 females; median age 10y, range 1y 4mo-15y 11mo), identified in the original study, were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (incidence of 2.04/million children/year); 23 of 24 fulfilled 2017 McDonald criteria at onset. Aquaporin-4-antibody neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders were diagnosed in three (2.4%, 0.26/million children/year), and relapsing myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease in five (4%, 0.43/million children/year). Three out of 125 seronegative patients relapsed and 85 of 125 (68%) remained monophasic over 10 years. Five of 125 patients (4%) originally diagnosed with ADS were reclassified during follow-up: three children diagnosed initially with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were subsequently diagnosed with acute necrotising encephalopathy (RAN-binding protein 2 mutation), primary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (Munc 13-4 gene inversion), and anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis. One child initially diagnosed with optic neuritis was later diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency, and one presenting with transverse myelitis was subsequently diagnosed with Sjögren syndrome.
INTERPRETATION: The majority of ADS presentations in children are monophasic, even at 10-year follow-up. Given the implications for treatment strategies, multiple sclerosis and central nervous system autoantibody mimics warrant extensive investigation.
Bibliographical noteFunding: Multiple Sclerosis Society UK. Grant Number: 893/08
Action Medical Research. Grant Number: SP4472
Wellcome Trust. Grant Number: GN79832