Insulin resistance has a broad pathogenic impact affecting metabolic, cardio-renal and other disease areas. Extensive studies to dissect the mechanisms of insulin resistance have provided valuable insights to shape current clinical awareness and advance therapeutic practice. However, the development of direct interventions against insulin resistance has been hindered by its complex and highly variable presentations, especially in type 2 diabetes. Among glucose-lowering agents, metformin and thiazolidinediones provide cellular actions that counter some effects of insulin resistance: reduced glucotoxicity and weight-lowering with antidiabetic therapies also improve insulin action, except that endogenously- or exogenously-created hyperinsulinaemia may partially compromise these benefits. Increasing awareness of the pervasiveness and damaging ramifications of insulin resistance heightens the need for more specifically targeted and more effective therapies.
Bibliographical note© Sage 2019. The final publication is available via Sage at http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479164119827570
- diabetes therapies
- dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors
- glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists
- Insulin resistance