Integration of paper microfluidic sensors into contact lenses for tear fluid analysis

Rosalia Moreddu, Mohamed Elsherif, Hadie Adams, Despina Moschou, Maria F. Cordeiro, James S. Wolffsohn, Daniele Vigolo, Haider Butt, Jonathan M. Cooper, Ali K. Yetisen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this article, using the integration of paper microfluidics within laser-inscribed commercial contact lenses, we demonstrate the multiplexed detection of clinically relevant analytes including hydrogen ions, proteins, glucose, nitrites and l-ascorbic acid, all sampled directly from model tears. In vitro measurements involved the optimization of colorimetric assays, with readouts collected, stored and analyzed using a bespoke Tears Diagnostics smartphone application prototype. We demonstrate the potential of the device to perform discrete measurements either for medical diagnosis or disease screening in the clinic or at the point-of-care (PoC), with future applications including monitoring of ocular infections, uveitis, diabetes, keratopathies and assessing oxidative stress.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3970-3979
Number of pages10
JournalLab on a Chip
Issue number21
Early online date4 Sep 2020
Publication statusPublished - 7 Nov 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
R. M. acknowledges the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK for PhD funding. A. K. Y. thanks the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) for a New Investigator Award (EP/T013567/1).


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