Intelligent breathing soliton generation in ultrafast fiber lasers

Xiuqi Wu, Junsong Peng, Sonia Boscolo, Ying Zhang, Christophe Finot, Heping Zeng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Harnessing pulse generation from an ultrafast laser is a challenging task as reaching a specific mode-locked regime generally involves adjusting multiple control parameters, in connection with a wide range of accessible pulse dynamics. Machine-learning tools have recently shown promising for the design of smart lasers that can tune themselves to desired operating states. Yet, machine-learning algorithms are mainly designed to target regimes of parameter-invariant, stationary pulse generation, while the intelligent excitation of evolving pulse patterns in a laser remains largely unexplored. Breathing solitons exhibiting periodic oscillatory behavior, emerging as ubiquitous mode-locked regime of ultrafast fiber lasers, are attracting considerable interest by virtue of their connection with a range of important nonlinear dynamics, such as exceptional points, and the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam paradox. Here, an evolutionary algorithm is implemented for the self-optimization of the breather regime in a fiber laser mode-locked through a four-parameter nonlinear polarization evolution. Depending on the specifications of the merit function used for the optimization procedure, various breathing-soliton states are obtained, including single breathers with controllable oscillation period and breathing ratio, and breather molecular complexes with a controllable number of elementary constituents. This work opens up a novel avenue for exploration and optimization of complex dynamics in nonlinear systems.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2100191
Number of pages10
JournalLaser and Photonics Reviews
Issue number2
Early online date13 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Wu, X., Peng, J., Boscolo, S., Zhang, Y., Finot, C., Zeng, H., Intelligent Breathing Soliton Generation in Ultrafast Fiber Lasers. Laser & Photonics Reviews 2021, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited

Funding: National Key Research and Development Program. Grant Number: 2018YFB0407100
National Natural Science Fund of China. Grant Numbers: 11621404, 11561121003, 11727812, 61775059, 11704123
Key Project of Shanghai Education Commission. Grant Number: 2017-01-07-00-05-E00021
Science and Technology Innovation Program of Basic Science Foundation of Shanghai. Grant Number: 18JC1412000
Shanghai Rising-Star Program
National Key Laboratory Foundation of China. Grant Number: 6142411196307
UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. Grant Number: EP/S003436/1


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