Intranasal Delivery of Liposomes to Glioblastoma by Photostimulation of the Lymphatic System

Oxana Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya*, Alexander Shirokov, Inna Blokhina, Valeria Telnova, Elena Vodovozova, Anna Alekseeva, Ivan Boldyrev, Ivan Fedosov, Alexander Dubrovsky, Alexandr Khorovodov, Andrey Terskov, Arina Evsukova, Daria Elovenko, Viktoria Adushkina, Maria Tzoy, Ilana Agranovich, Jürgen Kurths, Edik Rafailov, Huile Gao (Editor), Carla M. Lopes (Editor)José Catita (Editor)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The blood–brain barrier (BBB) limits the delivery of majority of cancer drugs and thereby complicates brain tumor treatment. The nasal-brain-lymphatic system is discussed as a pathway for brain drug delivery overcoming the BBB. However, in most cases, this method is not sufficient to achieve a therapeutic effect due to brain drug delivery in a short distance. Therefore, it is necessary to develop technologies to overcome the obstacles facing nose-to-brain delivery of promising pharmaceuticals. In this study, we clearly demonstrate intranasal delivery of liposomes to the mouse brain reaching glioblastoma (GBM). In the experiments with ablation of the meningeal lymphatic network, we report an important role of meningeal pathway for intranasal delivery of liposomes to the brain. Our data revealed that GBM is characterized by a dramatic reduction of intranasal delivery of liposomes to the brain that was significantly improved by near-infrared (1267 nm) photostimulation of the lymphatic vessels in the area of the cribriform plate and the meninges. These results open new perspectives for non-invasive improvement of efficiency of intranasal delivery of cancer drugs to the brain tissues using nanocarriers and near-infrared laser-based therapeutic devices, which are commercially available and widely used in clinical practice.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages16
Issue number1
Early online date22 Dec 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 22 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


  • Article
  • liposomes
  • nasal-brain lymphatic system
  • intranasal drug delivery
  • photostimulation
  • glioblastoma


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