Is Beauty in the Age of the Beholder?

Edward Easton*, Ulysses Bernardet, Anikó Ekárt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputConference publication


Symmetry is a universal concept, its unique importance has made it a topic of research across many different fields. It is often considered as a constant where higher levels of symmetry are preferred in the judgement of faces and even the initial state of the universe is thought to have been in pure symmetry. The same is true in the judgement of auto-generated art, with symmetry often used alongside complexity to generate aesthetically pleasing images; however, these are two of many different aspects contributing to aesthetic judgement, each one of these aspects is also influenced by other aspects, for example, art expertise. These intricacies cause multiple problems such as making it difficult to describe aesthetic preferences and to auto-generate artwork using a high number of these aspects. In this paper, a gamified approach is presented which is used to elicit the preferences of symmetry levels for individuals and further understand how symmetry can be utilised within the context of automatically generating artwork. The gamified approach is implemented within an experiment with participants aged between 13 and 60, providing evidence that symmetry should be kept consistent within an evolutionary art context.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationArtificial Intelligence in Music, Sound, Art and Design - 12th International Conference, EvoMUSART 2023, Held as Part of EvoStar 2023, Proceedings
Subtitle of host publication12th International Conference, EvoMUSART 2023
EditorsColin Johnson, Nereida Rodríguez-Fernández, Sérgio M. Rebelo
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-031-29956-8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2023
Event12th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Music, Sound, Art and Design, EvoMUSART 2023 held as Part of EvoStar 2023 - Brno, Czech Republic
Duration: 12 Apr 202314 Apr 2023

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference12th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Music, Sound, Art and Design, EvoMUSART 2023 held as Part of EvoStar 2023
Country/TerritoryCzech Republic


  • Aesthetic judgment
  • 3D Art Generation
  • Gamification
  • Virtual Reality


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