Is randomisation necessary for measuring defocus curves in pre-presbyopes?

Navneet Gupta, Shehzad A. Naroo*, James S. Wolffsohn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Defocus curves are used to evaluate the subjective range of clear vision of presbyopic corrections such as in eyes implanted with accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs). This study determines whether letter sequences and/or lens presentation order ought to be randomised when measuring defocus curves. Methods: Defocus curves (range +2.00DS to -2.00DS) were measured on 18 pre-presbyopic subjects (mean age 24.1 ± 4.2 years) for six combinations of sequential or randomised positive or negative lens progression and non-randomised or randomised letter sequences. The letters were presented on a computerised logMAR chart at 6 m. Results: Overall there was a statistically significant difference between the six combinations (ANOVA, p < 0.05) attributable to the combination of non-randomised letters with non-randomised lens progression from negative to positive defocus (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in defocus curve measurements if both letters and lens order were randomised compared to if only one of these variables was randomised (p > 0.05). Non-randomised letters, with a sequential lens progression from negative to positive, was significantly different to all other combinations when compared individually (Student's T-test, p < 0.003 on all comparisons), and was confirmed as the sole source of the overall significant difference. There was no statistically significant difference if both lens presentation order and letter sequences were randomised compared to if only one or the other of these variables was randomised. Conclusion: Non-randomised letters and non-randomised lens progression on their own did not affect the subjective amplitude of accommodation as measured by defocus curves, although their combination should be avoided. © 2007 British Contact Lens Association.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-124
Number of pages6
JournalContact Lens and Anterior Eye
Issue number2
Early online date19 Apr 2007
Publication statusPublished - May 2007


  • amplitude of accommodation
  • defocus curves
  • depth of focus
  • randomisation
  • visual acuity


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