Is smoking a risk factor for AMD?

Richard A. Armstrong

Research output: Contribution to specialist publicationArticle


This article is concerned specifically with the possible links between smoking and age related macular degeneration (AMD). It reviews the epidemiological and physiological evidence that smoking may be a risk factor for AMD, and describes the possible mechanisms by which smoking might contribute to the development of AMD.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages4
Specialist publicationOptometry Today
Publication statusPublished - 21 Feb 2003


  • smoking
  • age related macular degeneration
  • epidemiological evidence
  • physiological evidence

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