Is There a Link between Bisphenol A (BPA), a Key Endocrine Disruptor, and the Risk for SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Severe COVID-19?

Aeman Zahra, Cristina Sisu, Elisabete Silva, Sophie-Christine De Aguiar Greca, Harpal S. Randeva, Kamaljit Chatha, Ioannis Kyrou, Emmanouil Karteris*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


    Infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of a new disease (COVID-19). The risk of severe COVID-19 is increased by certain underlying comorbidities, including asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Notably, exposure to hormonally active chemicals called endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can promote such cardio-metabolic diseases, endocrine-related cancers, and immune system dysregulation and thus, may also be linked to higher risk of severe COVID-19. Bisphenol A (BPA) is among the most common EDCs and exerts its effects via receptors which are widely distributed in human tissues, including nuclear oestrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), membrane-bound oestrogen receptor (G protein-coupled receptor 30; GPR30), and human nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor gamma. As such, this paper focuses on the potential role of BPA in promoting comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19, as well as on potential BPA-induced effects on key SARS-CoV-2 infection mediators, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). Interestingly, GPR30 appears to exhibit greater co-localisation with TMPRSS2 in key tissues like lung and prostate, suggesting that BPA exposure may impact on the local expression of these SARS-CoV-2 infection mediators. Overall, the potential role of BPA on the risk and severity of COVID-19 merits further investigation.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number3296
    JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
    Issue number10
    Publication statusPublished - 14 Oct 2020

    Bibliographical note

    © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access
    article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution
    (CC BY) license (


    • SARS-CoV-2
    • COVID-19
    • BPA
    • oestrogen receptors
    • ACE2
    • TMPRSS2
    • endocrine disruptors


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