"It's not my fault - but only I can change it": counterfactual and prefactual thoughts of managers

Martin Goerke, Jens Möller, Uwe Napiersky, Stefan Schulz-Hardt, Dieter Frey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In testing for the self-serving bias in performance evaluation, the authors propose that comparing managers' counterfactual and prefactual thoughts about subordinates' performance is more conclusive than the attributional approach and also offers practical advantages. In a study with 120 managers, a 4-way interaction of subordinate performance, temporal perspective, direction, and reference confirmed the predicted pattern. Managers' thoughts about how a weak performance could have been enhanced had external references, but thoughts about how such a performance could be enhanced in the future focused on the leader. This asymmetry was only observed for weak performance. Results are discussed with regard to biases in leaders' performance evaluations and to how counter- and prefactual thoughts could be used for leadership research and practice.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)279-292
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Applied Psychology
Volume89
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2004

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