Longitudinal relationships between cognitive decline and gait slowing: the Tasmanian study of cognition and gait

Michele L. Callisaya, Christopher L. Blizzard, Amanda G. Wood, Amanda G. Thrift, Tracey Wardill, Velandai K. Srikanth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Gait slowing and cognitive decline are both common in older people. Although cross-sectionally related, the longitudinal associations between specific cognitive functions and gait speed are less well understood. We aimed to determine whether decline in specific cognitive domains are associated with change in gait speed.

METHODS: Participants aged 60-85, randomly selected from the electoral roll, were assessed twice over 3 years. Gait speed was obtained using the GAITRite walkway. Raw scores from a cognitive battery were subjected to principal component analyses deriving summary domains of executive function, processing speed, memory, and visuospatial ability. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between change in each cognitive domain and change in gait speed, adjusting for covariates and stratifying for the presence of baseline cognitive impairment.

RESULTS: Mean age at baseline was 71.1 years (SD = 6.7) and 56% (159/284) were men. Mean follow-up was 2.55 (0.47) years. Decline in executive function, but not other cognitive domains (p > .05), was associated with decline in gait speed, cm/s (β = -3.55, 95% CI = -5.49, -1.61; p < .001), both in the presence and absence of baseline cognitive impairment. Stronger associations were seen for those with baseline multiple domain cognitive impairment (β = -6.38, 95% CI = -12.49, -0.27) and nonamnestic single-domain cognitive impairment (β = -7.74, 95% CI = -14.76, -0.72).

CONCLUSION: Decline in nonamnestic function (specifically executive function) was associated with decline in gait speed irrespective of the presence of baseline cognitive impairment. Strategies to improve or maintain executive function may prevent gait slowing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1226-1232
Number of pages7
JournalJournals of Gerontology: Series A
Volume70
Issue number10
Early online date25 May 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Gait
Cognition
Executive Function
Aptitude
Principal Component Analysis
Walking Speed
Cognitive Dysfunction
Linear Models

Keywords

  • cognition disorders
  • cross-sectional studies
  • executive function
  • gait
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • mobility limitation
  • neuropsychological tests
  • Tasmania

Cite this

Callisaya, Michele L. ; Blizzard, Christopher L. ; Wood, Amanda G. ; Thrift, Amanda G. ; Wardill, Tracey ; Srikanth, Velandai K. / Longitudinal relationships between cognitive decline and gait slowing : the Tasmanian study of cognition and gait. In: Journals of Gerontology: Series A. 2015 ; Vol. 70, No. 10. pp. 1226-1232.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Gait slowing and cognitive decline are both common in older people. Although cross-sectionally related, the longitudinal associations between specific cognitive functions and gait speed are less well understood. We aimed to determine whether decline in specific cognitive domains are associated with change in gait speed.METHODS: Participants aged 60-85, randomly selected from the electoral roll, were assessed twice over 3 years. Gait speed was obtained using the GAITRite walkway. Raw scores from a cognitive battery were subjected to principal component analyses deriving summary domains of executive function, processing speed, memory, and visuospatial ability. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between change in each cognitive domain and change in gait speed, adjusting for covariates and stratifying for the presence of baseline cognitive impairment.RESULTS: Mean age at baseline was 71.1 years (SD = 6.7) and 56{\%} (159/284) were men. Mean follow-up was 2.55 (0.47) years. Decline in executive function, but not other cognitive domains (p > .05), was associated with decline in gait speed, cm/s (β = -3.55, 95{\%} CI = -5.49, -1.61; p < .001), both in the presence and absence of baseline cognitive impairment. Stronger associations were seen for those with baseline multiple domain cognitive impairment (β = -6.38, 95{\%} CI = -12.49, -0.27) and nonamnestic single-domain cognitive impairment (β = -7.74, 95{\%} CI = -14.76, -0.72).CONCLUSION: Decline in nonamnestic function (specifically executive function) was associated with decline in gait speed irrespective of the presence of baseline cognitive impairment. Strategies to improve or maintain executive function may prevent gait slowing.",
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Longitudinal relationships between cognitive decline and gait slowing : the Tasmanian study of cognition and gait. / Callisaya, Michele L.; Blizzard, Christopher L.; Wood, Amanda G.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Wardill, Tracey; Srikanth, Velandai K.

In: Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Vol. 70, No. 10, 2015, p. 1226-1232.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Longitudinal relationships between cognitive decline and gait slowing

T2 - the Tasmanian study of cognition and gait

AU - Callisaya, Michele L.

AU - Blizzard, Christopher L.

AU - Wood, Amanda G.

AU - Thrift, Amanda G.

AU - Wardill, Tracey

AU - Srikanth, Velandai K.

N1 - © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - BACKGROUND: Gait slowing and cognitive decline are both common in older people. Although cross-sectionally related, the longitudinal associations between specific cognitive functions and gait speed are less well understood. We aimed to determine whether decline in specific cognitive domains are associated with change in gait speed.METHODS: Participants aged 60-85, randomly selected from the electoral roll, were assessed twice over 3 years. Gait speed was obtained using the GAITRite walkway. Raw scores from a cognitive battery were subjected to principal component analyses deriving summary domains of executive function, processing speed, memory, and visuospatial ability. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between change in each cognitive domain and change in gait speed, adjusting for covariates and stratifying for the presence of baseline cognitive impairment.RESULTS: Mean age at baseline was 71.1 years (SD = 6.7) and 56% (159/284) were men. Mean follow-up was 2.55 (0.47) years. Decline in executive function, but not other cognitive domains (p > .05), was associated with decline in gait speed, cm/s (β = -3.55, 95% CI = -5.49, -1.61; p < .001), both in the presence and absence of baseline cognitive impairment. Stronger associations were seen for those with baseline multiple domain cognitive impairment (β = -6.38, 95% CI = -12.49, -0.27) and nonamnestic single-domain cognitive impairment (β = -7.74, 95% CI = -14.76, -0.72).CONCLUSION: Decline in nonamnestic function (specifically executive function) was associated with decline in gait speed irrespective of the presence of baseline cognitive impairment. Strategies to improve or maintain executive function may prevent gait slowing.

AB - BACKGROUND: Gait slowing and cognitive decline are both common in older people. Although cross-sectionally related, the longitudinal associations between specific cognitive functions and gait speed are less well understood. We aimed to determine whether decline in specific cognitive domains are associated with change in gait speed.METHODS: Participants aged 60-85, randomly selected from the electoral roll, were assessed twice over 3 years. Gait speed was obtained using the GAITRite walkway. Raw scores from a cognitive battery were subjected to principal component analyses deriving summary domains of executive function, processing speed, memory, and visuospatial ability. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between change in each cognitive domain and change in gait speed, adjusting for covariates and stratifying for the presence of baseline cognitive impairment.RESULTS: Mean age at baseline was 71.1 years (SD = 6.7) and 56% (159/284) were men. Mean follow-up was 2.55 (0.47) years. Decline in executive function, but not other cognitive domains (p > .05), was associated with decline in gait speed, cm/s (β = -3.55, 95% CI = -5.49, -1.61; p < .001), both in the presence and absence of baseline cognitive impairment. Stronger associations were seen for those with baseline multiple domain cognitive impairment (β = -6.38, 95% CI = -12.49, -0.27) and nonamnestic single-domain cognitive impairment (β = -7.74, 95% CI = -14.76, -0.72).CONCLUSION: Decline in nonamnestic function (specifically executive function) was associated with decline in gait speed irrespective of the presence of baseline cognitive impairment. Strategies to improve or maintain executive function may prevent gait slowing.

KW - cognition disorders

KW - cross-sectional studies

KW - executive function

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KW - magnetic resonance imaging

KW - mobility limitation

KW - neuropsychological tests

KW - Tasmania

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DO - 10.1093/gerona/glv066

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