This work verifies the impact of lubricant viscosity and viscosity improver additives on diesel fuel economy. Eight lubricants were tested in a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel engine mounted on a dynamometer, under different load and speed conditions. Engine friction power was also investigated through Willans’ line. The results demonstrate that fuel economy obtained from multigrade viscosity oils is higher than that obtained from monograde viscosity oils. A linear relationship was obtained between the high temperature high shear viscosity and specific fuel consumption. The lubricant which provided lower fuel consumption also required lower friction power.