The advantages of liposomes as delivery systems for peptide, protein and DNA vaccines is well-recognised, unfortunately their application has been stinted by their instability during storage and their limited shelf-life. Further, sterilisation of these systems has been problematic, with degradation of the liposomes being reported after sterilisation using the various techniques available. Work form our laboratory has investigated techniques that can be applied to particulate liposomal vaccines such that they can be prepared in a freeze-dried and sterile format. In this article, we describe techniques for the lyophilisation, cryoprotection and sterilisation of liposomal vaccines. Applying these methods allows for the retention of both the chemical integrity of the lipids and the key physico-chemical characteristics of the liposomes (e.g., particle size, zeta potential, and dynamic viscosity), thus supporting the enhanced transition of liposomal vaccines from the bench to the clinic. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- ionizing radiation