Mask-less lithography for fabrication of optical waveguides

Mykhaylo Dubov, S.R. Natarajan, John A.R. Williams, Ian Bennion

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputConference publication


A flexible method for fabricating shallow optical waveguides by using femtosecond laser writing of patterns on a metal coated glass substrate followed by ion-exchange is described. This overcomes the drawbacks of low index contrast and high induced stress in waveguides directly written using low-repetition rate ultrafast laser systems. When compared to conventional lithography, the technique is simpler and has advantages in terms of flexibility in the types of structures which can be fabricated.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCommercial and biomedical applications of ultrafast lasers VIII
EditorsJoseph Neev, Stefan Nolte, Alexander Heisterkamp, Christopher B. Schaffer
ISBN (Print)978-0-8194-7056-0
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2008
EventCommercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers VIII - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: 20 Jan 200823 Jan 2008

Publication series

NameSPIE proceedings
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


ConferenceCommercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers VIII
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Jose, CA

Bibliographical note

M. Dubov ; S. R. Natarajan ; J. A. R. Williams and I. Bennion
"Mask-less lithography for fabrication of optical waveguides", Proc. SPIE 6881, Commercial and Biomedical Applications of Ultrafast Lasers VIII, 688110 (February 15, 2008); doi:10.1117/12.762594.

Copyright 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.


  • glass
  • ion exchange
  • lithography
  • substrates
  • ultrashort pulses
  • femtosecond lithography
  • mask-less
  • planar lightwave circuit


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