Measuring macular pigment optical density in vivo: a review of techniques

Olivia Howells, Frank Eperjesi, Hannah Bartlett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Macular pigment has been the focus of much attention in recent years, as a potential modifiable risk factor for age-related macular degeneration. This interest has been heightened by the ability to measure macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in vivo.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)315-347
Number of pages33
JournalGraefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Issue number3
Early online date8 Jan 2011
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011


  • densitometry
  • ophthalmological diagnostic techniques
  • humans
  • lutein
  • macula lutea
  • photometry
  • psychophysiology
  • retinal pigments
  • Raman spectrum analysis
  • xanthophylls


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