Mechanical actuation by responsive polyelectrolyte brushes and triblock gels

A.J. Ryan, C.J. Crook, J.R. Howse, P. Topham, M. Geoghegan, S.J. Martin, A.J. Parnell, L. Ruiz-Pérez, R.A.L. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Progress in the development of actuating molecular devices based on responsive polymers is reviewed. The synthesis and characterization of "grafted from brushes and triblock copolymers is reported. The responsive nature of polyelectrolyte brushes, grown by surface initiated atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), has been characterized by scanning force microscopy, neutron reflectometry, and single molecule force measurements. The molecular response is measured directly for the brushes in terms of both the brush height and composition and the force generated by a single molecule. Triblock copolymers, based on hydrophobic end blocks and polyacid midblock, have been used to produce polymer gels where the deformation of the molecules can be followed directly by small angle Xray scattering (SAXS), and a correlation between molecular shape change and macroscopic deformation has been established. A Landolt pHoscillator, based on bromate/sulfite/ferrocyanide, with a room temperature period of 20 min and a range of 3.1 <pH <7.0, was used to drive periodic oscillations in volume in this pH responsive hydrogel. The triblock copolymers demonstrate that the individual response of the polyelectrolyte molecules scale affinely to produce the macroscopic response of the system in an oscillating chemical reaction.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1103-1121
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Macromolecular Science, part B: Physics
Volume44
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2005

Fingerprint

brushes
Brushes
Polyelectrolytes
actuation
Gels
gels
Block copolymers
copolymers
Molecules
molecules
Polymers
Bromates
bromates
sulfites
Sulfites
Force measurement
Hydrogel
polymers
Free radical polymerization
Hydrogels

Keywords

  • actuating
  • triblock copolymers
  • molecular response

Cite this

Ryan, A. J., Crook, C. J., Howse, J. R., Topham, P., Geoghegan, M., Martin, S. J., ... Jones, R. A. L. (2005). Mechanical actuation by responsive polyelectrolyte brushes and triblock gels. Journal of Macromolecular Science, part B: Physics, 44(6), 1103-1121. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222340500364387
Ryan, A.J. ; Crook, C.J. ; Howse, J.R. ; Topham, P. ; Geoghegan, M. ; Martin, S.J. ; Parnell, A.J. ; Ruiz-Pérez, L. ; Jones, R.A.L. / Mechanical actuation by responsive polyelectrolyte brushes and triblock gels. In: Journal of Macromolecular Science, part B: Physics. 2005 ; Vol. 44, No. 6. pp. 1103-1121.
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Ryan, AJ, Crook, CJ, Howse, JR, Topham, P, Geoghegan, M, Martin, SJ, Parnell, AJ, Ruiz-Pérez, L & Jones, RAL 2005, 'Mechanical actuation by responsive polyelectrolyte brushes and triblock gels' Journal of Macromolecular Science, part B: Physics, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 1103-1121. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222340500364387

Mechanical actuation by responsive polyelectrolyte brushes and triblock gels. / Ryan, A.J.; Crook, C.J.; Howse, J.R.; Topham, P.; Geoghegan, M.; Martin, S.J.; Parnell, A.J.; Ruiz-Pérez, L.; Jones, R.A.L.

In: Journal of Macromolecular Science, part B: Physics, Vol. 44, No. 6, 11.2005, p. 1103-1121.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Mechanical actuation by responsive polyelectrolyte brushes and triblock gels

AU - Ryan, A.J.

AU - Crook, C.J.

AU - Howse, J.R.

AU - Topham, P.

AU - Geoghegan, M.

AU - Martin, S.J.

AU - Parnell, A.J.

AU - Ruiz-Pérez, L.

AU - Jones, R.A.L.

N1 - Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

PY - 2005/11

Y1 - 2005/11

N2 - Progress in the development of actuating molecular devices based on responsive polymers is reviewed. The synthesis and characterization of "grafted from brushes and triblock copolymers is reported. The responsive nature of polyelectrolyte brushes, grown by surface initiated atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), has been characterized by scanning force microscopy, neutron reflectometry, and single molecule force measurements. The molecular response is measured directly for the brushes in terms of both the brush height and composition and the force generated by a single molecule. Triblock copolymers, based on hydrophobic end blocks and polyacid midblock, have been used to produce polymer gels where the deformation of the molecules can be followed directly by small angle Xray scattering (SAXS), and a correlation between molecular shape change and macroscopic deformation has been established. A Landolt pHoscillator, based on bromate/sulfite/ferrocyanide, with a room temperature period of 20 min and a range of 3.1 <pH <7.0, was used to drive periodic oscillations in volume in this pH responsive hydrogel. The triblock copolymers demonstrate that the individual response of the polyelectrolyte molecules scale affinely to produce the macroscopic response of the system in an oscillating chemical reaction.

AB - Progress in the development of actuating molecular devices based on responsive polymers is reviewed. The synthesis and characterization of "grafted from brushes and triblock copolymers is reported. The responsive nature of polyelectrolyte brushes, grown by surface initiated atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), has been characterized by scanning force microscopy, neutron reflectometry, and single molecule force measurements. The molecular response is measured directly for the brushes in terms of both the brush height and composition and the force generated by a single molecule. Triblock copolymers, based on hydrophobic end blocks and polyacid midblock, have been used to produce polymer gels where the deformation of the molecules can be followed directly by small angle Xray scattering (SAXS), and a correlation between molecular shape change and macroscopic deformation has been established. A Landolt pHoscillator, based on bromate/sulfite/ferrocyanide, with a room temperature period of 20 min and a range of 3.1 <pH <7.0, was used to drive periodic oscillations in volume in this pH responsive hydrogel. The triblock copolymers demonstrate that the individual response of the polyelectrolyte molecules scale affinely to produce the macroscopic response of the system in an oscillating chemical reaction.

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