Mechanism of attenuation of protein loss in murine C2C12 myotubes by d-myo-inositol 1,2,6-triphosphate

Steven T. Russell, Pontus M.A. Siren, Matti J. Siren, Michael J. Tisdale*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


d-Myo-inositol 1,2,6-triphosphate (alpha trinositol, AT) has been shown to attenuate muscle atrophy in a murine cachexia model through an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in degradation. The mechanism of this effect has been investigated in murine myotubes using a range of catabolic stimuli, including proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF), angiotensin II (Ang II), lipopolysaccharide, and tumor necrosis factor-α/interferon-γ. At a concentration of 100 μM AT was found to attenuate both the induction of protein degradation and depression of protein synthesis in response to all stimuli. The effect on protein degradation was accompanied by attenuation of the increased expression and activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. This suggests that AT inhibits a signalling step common to all four agents. This target has been shown to be activation (autophosphorylation) of the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and the subsequent phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 on the α-subunit, together with downstream signalling pathways leading to protein degradation. AT also inhibited activation of caspase-3/-8, which is thought to lead to activation of PKR. The mechanism of this effect may be related to the ability of AT to chelate divalent metal ions, since the attenuation of the increased activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway by PIF and Ang II, as well as the depression of protein synthesis by PIF, were reversed by increasing concentrations of Zn2+. The ability of AT to attenuate muscle atrophy by a range of stimuli suggests that it may be effective in several catabolic conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)286-295
Number of pages10
JournalExperimental Cell Research
Issue number2
Early online date28 Aug 2009
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2010


  • alpha trinositol
  • protein degradation
  • protein kinase R
  • protein synthesis
  • zinc


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