Mechanisms of resistance in Salmonella enterica adapted to erythromycin, benzalkonium chloride and triclosan

Maria Braoudaki, Antony C. Hilton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The potential for adaptive resistance of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, Typhimurium and Virchow to increasing sub-lethal concentrations of erythromycin, benzalkonium chloride and triclosan was investigated to identify mechanisms underlying resistance. Permeability changes of the outer membrane, including LPS, cell surface charge, hydrophobicity and the presence of an active efflux in the adapted strain compared with the parent were studied. Examination of the outer membrane and LPS did not reveal any significant changes, although most of the pre-adapted strains were notably less hydrophobic than resistant strains. More than one type of active efflux was identified in all strains investigated, on the basis of restored sensitivity in the presence of the inhibitors reserpine and carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). Cell surface hydrophobicity and the presence of active efflux could contribute to the resistance of S. enterica to the antibacterial agents studied here. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-37
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2005


  • benzalkonium chloride
  • cell surface hydrophobicity
  • efflux
  • resistance
  • salmonella enterica
  • triclosan


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