Due to the growing awareness of the harmful impact of conventional fossil fuels and advancements in renewable energy technologies, microgrid has grown in popularity. This chapter aims to provide holistic learning of the microgrid system. This chapter is not only helpful for readers who are new to the world microgrid energy systems but also provide essential information to experts of this field. The chapter highlights the need and merits of adoption of microgrid systems while also highlighting the barriers in its implementation. The chapter also provides the various methods of categorization of microgrid while also emphasizing critical points of multiple categories. The different aspect of the deployment of microgrids, such as its architecture, mode of operations, control strategies, monitoring methods, protection schemes, and energy management strategies are categorically explained. The fundamental requirement of the protection system and its functions are described to provide the overview of protection schemes used in the microgrid in this chapter. Various protection schemes will be discussed in the other following chapter giving more emphasis on new protection strategies.