Mini-Review on Hot Gas Filtration in Biomass Gasification: Focusing on Ceramic Filter Candles

Lin Lang, Hong-yu Zhu, Ying-na Ding, Xiu-li Yin, Chuang-zhi Wu, Xi Yu, Anthony V. Bridgwater

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Biomass gasification is increasingly attracting interest in the research of biorenewable energy all over the world, as a carbon-neutral supplement to the conventional fossil energy. It can convert biomass to the burnable producer gas for heat and power production or synthesis of fuels and chemicals. However, its commercial applications are seriously interfered by the minor but unavoidable contaminants or impurities in the raw product gas, which cause severe problems in the downstream equipment. This paper reviews the recent progress on the hot gas filtration technologies for removing particulate matters (PMs) and tars from the biomass-derived product gas, focusing on ceramic filter candles, which are widely applied in the biomass gasification systems. Developments of PM characterization, hot gas catalytic filtration, and oxidative filtration as well as the numerical simulation of computational fluid dynamics in hot gas filtration are summarized in detail. It also critically discusses the major challenges and future opportunities in hot gas filtration and concludes that the combined oxidative filtration and catalytic filtration with highly efficient catalyst at moderate temperatures (<600 °C) should be the most economical option for the widespread commercial small-scale biomass gasification systems.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11800-11819
Number of pages20
JournalEnergy and Fuels
Issue number15
Early online date14 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 5 Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Energy & Fuels, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see

Funding: This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51676192), the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA21060600), the Guangdong Provincial Science and Technology Project (2019A050510031), and the Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou (201904010098). H.-y.Z. gratefully acknowledges Doctoral Training Program fund from College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Aston University.


  • Biomass
  • Ceramics
  • Particulate matter
  • Filtration
  • Gasification


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