Modeling Viscosity and Density of Ethanol-Diesel-Biodiesel Ternary Blends for Sustainable Environment

Luqman Razzaq, Muhammad Farooq, M. A. Mujtaba, Farooq Sher, Muhammad Farhan, Muhammad Tahir Hassan, Manzoore Elahi M. Soudagar, A. E. Atabani, M. A. Kalam, Muhammad Imran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Rapid depletion in fossil fuels, inflation in petroleum prices, and rising energy demand have forced towards alternative transport fuels. Among these alternative fuels, diesel-ethanol and diesel-biodiesel blends gain the most attention due to their quality characteristics and environmentally friendly nature. The viscosity and density of these biodiesel blends are slightly higher than diesel, which is a significant barrier to the commercialization of biodiesel. In this study, the density and viscosity of 30 different ternary biodiesel blends was investigated at 15 °С and 40 °С, respectively. Different density and viscosity models were developed and tested on biodiesel blends soured from different feedstock’s including palm, coconut, soybean, mustard, and calophyllum oils. The prognostic ability and precisions of these developed models was assessed statistically using Absolute Percentage Error (APE) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). The MAPE of 0.045% and 0.085% for density model and 1.85%, 1.41%, 3.48% and 2.27%, 1.85%, 3.50% for viscosity models were obtained on % volume and % mass basis. These developed correlations are useful for ternary biodiesel blends where alcohols are the part of biodiesel blends. The modeled values of densities and viscosities of ternary blends were significantly comparable with the measured densities and viscosities, which are feasible to avoid the harm of vehicles’ operability.
Original languageEnglish
Article number5186
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 25 Jun 2020

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited


  • Biodiesel
  • Density
  • Diesel
  • Ethanol
  • Models
  • Ternary blends
  • Viscosity


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