This article presents a two-layer optimization scheme for simultaneous optimal allocation of wind turbines (WTs) and battery energy storage systems (BESSs) in power distribution networks. The prime objective of this formulation is to maximize the renewable hosting capacity of the system. For outer-layer, a new objective function is developed by combining multiple objectives such as annual energy loss in feeders, back-feed power, BESSs conversion losses, node voltage deviation, and demand fluctuations caused by renewables subject to various system security and reliability constraints. Furthermore, a modified variant of African buffalo optimization (ABO) introduced to overcome some of the limitations observed in its standard variant. The proposed modifications are first validated and then introduced for simultaneous optimal integration of multiple distributed energy resources in distribution systems. The proposed modified ABO is employed to determine the optimization variables of outer-layer. Whereas, a heuristic is proposed to solve the inner-layer optimization problem aiming to determine the optimal dispatch of BESSs suggested by outer-layer optimization. By considering the high investment and operating cost of BESSs, minimum energy storage capacity has been ensured during the planning stage. To present the efficacy of developed model, it is implemented on a 33-bus, benchmark test distribution system for various test cases. The comparative simulation results show that the proposed optimization model and modified ABO is very promising to improve the performance of active distribution systems.
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- African buffalo optimization
- battery energy storage system
- distributed generation
- distribution systems