Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) confers drug resistance and also mediates cellular efflux of many organic anions. MRP1 also transports glutathione (GSH); furthermore, this tripeptide stimulates transport of several substrates, including estrone 3-sulfate. We have previously shown that mutations of Lys(332) in transmembrane helix (TM) 6 and Trp(1246) in TM17 cause different substrate-selective losses in MRP1 transport activity. Here we have extended our characterization of mutants K332L and W1246C to further define the different roles these two residues play in determining the substrate and inhibitor specificity of MRP1. Thus, we have shown that TM17-Trp(1246) is crucial for conferring drug resistance and for binding and transport of methotrexate, estradiol glucuronide, and estrone 3-sulfate, as well as for binding of the tricyclic isoxazole inhibitor N-[3-(9-chloro-3-methyl-4-oxo-4H-isoxazolo-[4,3-c]quinolin-5-yl)-cyclohexylmethyl]-benzamide (LY465803). In contrast, TM6-Lys(332) is important for enabling GSH and GSH-containing compounds to serve as substrates (e.g., leukotriene C(4)) or modulators (e.g., S-decyl-GSH, GSH disulfide) of MRP1 and, further, for enabling GSH (or S-methyl-GSH) to enhance the transport of estrone 3-sulfate and increase the inhibitory potency of LY465803. On the other hand, both mutants are as sensitive as wild-type MRP1 to the non-GSH-containing inhibitors (E)-3-[[[3-[2-(7-chloro-2-quinolinyl)ethenyl]phenyl][[3-(dimethylamino)-3-oxopropyl]thio]methyl]thio]-propanoic acid (MK571), 1-[2-hydroxy-3-propyl-4-[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)butoxy]phenyl]-ethanone (LY171883), and highly potent 6-[4'-carboxyphenylthio]-5[S]-hydroxy-7[E], 11[Z]14[Z]-eicosatetrenoic acid (BAY u9773). Finally, the differing abilities of the cysteinyl leukotriene derivatives leukotriene C(4), D(4), and F(4) to inhibit estradiol glucuronide transport by wild-type and K332L mutant MRP1 provide further evidence that TM6-Lys(332) is involved in the recognition of the gamma-Glu portion of substrates and modulators containing GSH or GSH-like moieties.
- ATP-binding cassette transporters
- Biological transport
- site-directed mutagenesis
- estrone sulfate