Multilevel relational influences on HRM practices: a cross-country comparative reflective review of HRM practices in Asia

Ashish Malik, Vijay Pereira, Pawan Budhwar, Fabian Jintae Froese, Dana Minbaeva, James Sun, Anh Tuan Nguyen, Shanzi Xue*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


In this paper, we respond to the calls for context-specific scholarship and research on human resource management (HRM) in Asia. We provide an overview of and key insights into HRM in five Asian countries, representing five key regions: China (East Asia), India (South Asia), Kazakhstan (Central Asia), United Arab Emirates (West Asia), and Vietnam (Southeast Asia). Based on our comprehensive, pan-Asian review, we develop a reflective, comparative, and relational understanding of HRM practices. In doing so, we group the myriad contextual influences on the shaping of HRM practices at three broad levels: macro-, meso-, and microlevel influences. Specifically, we propose that influences from regionalization of economies, national business systems, industry, multinational enterprises, and individual-level predispositions collectively shape and variously influence the nature and extent of HRM practices. By considering the findings of prior research on convergence and divergence, we offer a nuanced perspective wherein each country and region in Asia possesses a distinct amalgam of national business systems, and where HRM practices respond to multilevel influences in varied ways.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)745-779
Number of pages35
JournalAsian Business and Management
Issue number5
Early online date21 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2022, The Author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

Funding: Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL.


  • HRM practices
  • Cross-country comparative review
  • Asia
  • Convergence
  • Divergence


Dive into the research topics of 'Multilevel relational influences on HRM practices: a cross-country comparative reflective review of HRM practices in Asia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this