Multiobjective nested optimization framework for simultaneous integration of multiple photovoltaic and battery energy storage systems in distribution networks

Rayees Ahmad Thokar, Nikhil Gupta, K.R. Niazi, Anil Swarnkar, Nand K. Meena

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The rapid growth of renewables in modern distribution networks results in the spilling of energy due to the limited hosting capacity of these networks, violation of system constraints, reduced network efficiency, and improper utilization of resources. Battery energy storage system (BESS), in spite of its high cost, a shorter life and complex control, offers a flexible solution for the problem. In this paper, a multiobjective nested optimization framework is developed for the simultaneous optimal allocation of multiple solar photovoltaics (SPVs) and BESSs in the distribution networks. The framework involves a two-layered structure; the outer layer provides tentative planning solutions to the inner layer that optimizes the desired objectives of network operations and then returns the functional values back to the outer layer. The purpose of the inner-layer is to satisfy the operational constraints of the networks and ensure the optimal utilization of BESS capacities, suggested by the outer layer, at the time of planning itself. A new BESS operating strategy is proposed for optimum utilization of BESS. The nested multiobjective optimization problem is handled by suggesting a new weighted sum approach in conjunction with a recently developed swarm intelligence-based algorithm, i.e. moth search optimization. Overall, the proposed deterministic model essentially ensures the high penetration of SPVs and the optimal utilization of BESSs to justify their installation. The optimization model is investigated on a benchmark 33-bus test distribution network. The application results highlight enhanced energy efficiency, peak load shaving, high renewable penetration, voltage profile improvement, and mitigation of reverse power flow while effectively absorbing the excess renewable power generation during light load hours.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102263
JournalJournal of Energy Storage
Early online date18 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

© 2021, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International


  • Battery energy storage systems
  • Distribution systems
  • Integration of RESs
  • Moth search optimization
  • Nested optimization framework


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