Mutations in the NHEJ component XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism

Jennie E Murray, Mirjam van der Burg, Hanna IJspeert, Paula Carroll, Qian Wu, Takashi Ochi, Andrea Leitch, Edward S Miller, Boris Kysela, Alireza Jawad, Armand Bottani, Francesco Brancati, Marco Cappa, Valerie Cormier-Daire, Charu Deshpande, Eissa A Faqeih, Gail E Graham, Emmanuelle Ranza, Tom L Blundell, Andrew P Jackson & 2 others Grant S Stewart, Louise S Bicknell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a key cellular process ensuring genome integrity. Mutations in several components of the NHEJ pathway have been identified, often associated with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), consistent with the requirement for NHEJ during V(D)J recombination to ensure diversity of the adaptive immune system. In contrast, we have recently found that biallelic mutations in LIG4 are a common cause of microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD), a phenotype characterized by prenatal-onset extreme global growth failure. Here we provide definitive molecular genetic evidence supported by biochemical, cellular, and immunological data for mutations in XRCC4, encoding the obligate binding partner of LIG4, causing MPD. We report the identification of biallelic mutations in XRCC4 in five families. Biochemical and cellular studies demonstrate that these alterations substantially decrease XRCC4 protein levels leading to reduced cellular ligase IV activity. Consequently, NHEJ-dependent repair of ionizing-radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks is compromised in XRCC4 cells. Similarly, immunoglobulin junctional diversification is impaired in cells. However, immunoglobulin levels are normal, and individuals lack overt signs of immunodeficiency. Additionally, in contrast to individuals with LIG4 mutations, pancytopenia leading to bone marrow failure has not been observed. Hence, alterations that alter different NHEJ proteins give rise to a phenotypic spectrum, from SCID to extreme growth failure, with deficiencies in certain key components of this repair pathway predominantly exhibiting growth deficits, reflecting differential developmental requirements for NHEJ proteins to support growth and immune maturation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)412-424
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Journal of Human Genetics
Volume96
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Mar 2015

Fingerprint

Dwarfism
Mutation
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
Growth
Immunoglobulins
V(D)J Recombination
Pancytopenia
Proteins
Double-Stranded DNA Breaks
Ligases
Ionizing Radiation
Molecular Biology
Immune System
Bone Marrow
Genome
Phenotype

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Alleles
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded
  • DNA Ligase ATP
  • DNA Ligases/genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics
  • Dwarfism/genetics
  • Dwarfism, Pituitary/genetics
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
  • Exome
  • Facies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Microcephaly/genetics
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Protein Conformation
  • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/genetics

Cite this

Murray, J. E., van der Burg, M., IJspeert, H., Carroll, P., Wu, Q., Ochi, T., ... Bicknell, L. S. (2015). Mutations in the NHEJ component XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism. American Journal of Human Genetics, 96(3), 412-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.01.013
Murray, Jennie E ; van der Burg, Mirjam ; IJspeert, Hanna ; Carroll, Paula ; Wu, Qian ; Ochi, Takashi ; Leitch, Andrea ; Miller, Edward S ; Kysela, Boris ; Jawad, Alireza ; Bottani, Armand ; Brancati, Francesco ; Cappa, Marco ; Cormier-Daire, Valerie ; Deshpande, Charu ; Faqeih, Eissa A ; Graham, Gail E ; Ranza, Emmanuelle ; Blundell, Tom L ; Jackson, Andrew P ; Stewart, Grant S ; Bicknell, Louise S. / Mutations in the NHEJ component XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism. In: American Journal of Human Genetics. 2015 ; Vol. 96, No. 3. pp. 412-424.
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Murray, JE, van der Burg, M, IJspeert, H, Carroll, P, Wu, Q, Ochi, T, Leitch, A, Miller, ES, Kysela, B, Jawad, A, Bottani, A, Brancati, F, Cappa, M, Cormier-Daire, V, Deshpande, C, Faqeih, EA, Graham, GE, Ranza, E, Blundell, TL, Jackson, AP, Stewart, GS & Bicknell, LS 2015, 'Mutations in the NHEJ component XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism', American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 412-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.01.013

Mutations in the NHEJ component XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism. / Murray, Jennie E; van der Burg, Mirjam; IJspeert, Hanna; Carroll, Paula; Wu, Qian; Ochi, Takashi; Leitch, Andrea; Miller, Edward S; Kysela, Boris; Jawad, Alireza; Bottani, Armand; Brancati, Francesco; Cappa, Marco; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Deshpande, Charu; Faqeih, Eissa A; Graham, Gail E; Ranza, Emmanuelle; Blundell, Tom L; Jackson, Andrew P; Stewart, Grant S; Bicknell, Louise S.

In: American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. 96, No. 3, 05.03.2015, p. 412-424.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mutations in the NHEJ component XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism

AU - Murray, Jennie E

AU - van der Burg, Mirjam

AU - IJspeert, Hanna

AU - Carroll, Paula

AU - Wu, Qian

AU - Ochi, Takashi

AU - Leitch, Andrea

AU - Miller, Edward S

AU - Kysela, Boris

AU - Jawad, Alireza

AU - Bottani, Armand

AU - Brancati, Francesco

AU - Cappa, Marco

AU - Cormier-Daire, Valerie

AU - Deshpande, Charu

AU - Faqeih, Eissa A

AU - Graham, Gail E

AU - Ranza, Emmanuelle

AU - Blundell, Tom L

AU - Jackson, Andrew P

AU - Stewart, Grant S

AU - Bicknell, Louise S

N1 - Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PY - 2015/3/5

Y1 - 2015/3/5

N2 - Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a key cellular process ensuring genome integrity. Mutations in several components of the NHEJ pathway have been identified, often associated with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), consistent with the requirement for NHEJ during V(D)J recombination to ensure diversity of the adaptive immune system. In contrast, we have recently found that biallelic mutations in LIG4 are a common cause of microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD), a phenotype characterized by prenatal-onset extreme global growth failure. Here we provide definitive molecular genetic evidence supported by biochemical, cellular, and immunological data for mutations in XRCC4, encoding the obligate binding partner of LIG4, causing MPD. We report the identification of biallelic mutations in XRCC4 in five families. Biochemical and cellular studies demonstrate that these alterations substantially decrease XRCC4 protein levels leading to reduced cellular ligase IV activity. Consequently, NHEJ-dependent repair of ionizing-radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks is compromised in XRCC4 cells. Similarly, immunoglobulin junctional diversification is impaired in cells. However, immunoglobulin levels are normal, and individuals lack overt signs of immunodeficiency. Additionally, in contrast to individuals with LIG4 mutations, pancytopenia leading to bone marrow failure has not been observed. Hence, alterations that alter different NHEJ proteins give rise to a phenotypic spectrum, from SCID to extreme growth failure, with deficiencies in certain key components of this repair pathway predominantly exhibiting growth deficits, reflecting differential developmental requirements for NHEJ proteins to support growth and immune maturation.

AB - Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a key cellular process ensuring genome integrity. Mutations in several components of the NHEJ pathway have been identified, often associated with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), consistent with the requirement for NHEJ during V(D)J recombination to ensure diversity of the adaptive immune system. In contrast, we have recently found that biallelic mutations in LIG4 are a common cause of microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD), a phenotype characterized by prenatal-onset extreme global growth failure. Here we provide definitive molecular genetic evidence supported by biochemical, cellular, and immunological data for mutations in XRCC4, encoding the obligate binding partner of LIG4, causing MPD. We report the identification of biallelic mutations in XRCC4 in five families. Biochemical and cellular studies demonstrate that these alterations substantially decrease XRCC4 protein levels leading to reduced cellular ligase IV activity. Consequently, NHEJ-dependent repair of ionizing-radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks is compromised in XRCC4 cells. Similarly, immunoglobulin junctional diversification is impaired in cells. However, immunoglobulin levels are normal, and individuals lack overt signs of immunodeficiency. Additionally, in contrast to individuals with LIG4 mutations, pancytopenia leading to bone marrow failure has not been observed. Hence, alterations that alter different NHEJ proteins give rise to a phenotypic spectrum, from SCID to extreme growth failure, with deficiencies in certain key components of this repair pathway predominantly exhibiting growth deficits, reflecting differential developmental requirements for NHEJ proteins to support growth and immune maturation.

KW - Alleles

KW - Amino Acid Sequence

KW - Child

KW - Child, Preschool

KW - DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded

KW - DNA Ligase ATP

KW - DNA Ligases/genetics

KW - DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics

KW - Dwarfism/genetics

KW - Dwarfism, Pituitary/genetics

KW - Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field

KW - Exome

KW - Facies

KW - Female

KW - Humans

KW - Infant

KW - Male

KW - Microcephaly/genetics

KW - Molecular Sequence Data

KW - Mutation

KW - Phenotype

KW - Protein Conformation

KW - Severe Combined Immunodeficiency/genetics

UR - https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000292971500021X?via%3Dihub

U2 - 10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.01.013

DO - 10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.01.013

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SP - 412

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JO - American Journal of Human Genetics

JF - American Journal of Human Genetics

SN - 0002-9297

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Murray JE, van der Burg M, IJspeert H, Carroll P, Wu Q, Ochi T et al. Mutations in the NHEJ component XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2015 Mar 5;96(3):412-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.01.013