N-terminal His7-modification of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36) amide generates dipeptidyl peptidase IV-stable analogues with potent antihyperglycaemic activity

B.D. Green, M.H. Mooney, V.A. Gault, N. Irwin, C.J. Bailey, P. Harriott, B. Greer, F.P.M. O'Harte, P.R. Flatt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) possesses several unique and beneficial effects for the potential treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, the rapid inactivation of GLP-1 by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) results in a short half-life in vivo (less than 2 min) hindering therapeutic development. In the present study, a novel His7-modified analogue of GLP-1, N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 as well as N-acetyl-GLP-1 were synthesised and tested for DPP IV stability and biological activity. Incubation of GLP-1 with either DPP IV or human plasma resulted in rapid degradation of native GLP-1 to GLP-1(9-36)amide, while N-acetyl-GLP-1 and N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 were completely resistant to degradation. N-acetyl-GLP-1 and N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 bound to the GLP-1 receptor but had reduced affinities (IC50 values 32.9 and 6.7 nM, respectively) compared with native GLP-1 (IC50-37 nM). Similarly, both analogues stimulated cAMP production with EC50 values of 16.3 and 27 nM respectively compared with GLP-1 (EC50 4.7 nM). However, N-acetyl-GLP-1 and N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 exhibited potent insulinotropic activity in vitro at 5.6 mM glucose (P< 0.05 to P< 0.001) similar to native GLP-1. Both analogues (25 nM/kg body weight) lowered plasma glucose and increased plasma insulin levels when administered in conjunction with glucose (18 nM/kg body weight) to adult obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice. N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 was substantially better at lowering plasma glucose compared with the native peptide, while N-acetyl-GLP-1 was significantly more potent at stimulating insulin secretion. These studies indicate that N-terminal modification of GLP-1 results in DPP IV-resistant and biologically potent forms of GLP-1. The particularly powerful antihyperglycaemic action of N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 shows potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. © 2004 Society for Endocrinology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)379-388
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Endocrinology
Volume180
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2004

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Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Hypoglycemic Agents
Glucose
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Inhibitory Concentration 50
Body Weight
glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36)amide
Insulin
Endocrinology
Half-Life
N-pyroglutamyl-glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide
N-acetyl-glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide

Cite this

Green, B.D. ; Mooney, M.H. ; Gault, V.A. ; Irwin, N. ; Bailey, C.J. ; Harriott, P. ; Greer, B. ; O'Harte, F.P.M. ; Flatt, P.R. / N-terminal His7-modification of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36) amide generates dipeptidyl peptidase IV-stable analogues with potent antihyperglycaemic activity. In: Journal of Endocrinology. 2004 ; Vol. 180, No. 3. pp. 379-388.
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abstract = "Glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) possesses several unique and beneficial effects for the potential treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, the rapid inactivation of GLP-1 by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) results in a short half-life in vivo (less than 2 min) hindering therapeutic development. In the present study, a novel His7-modified analogue of GLP-1, N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 as well as N-acetyl-GLP-1 were synthesised and tested for DPP IV stability and biological activity. Incubation of GLP-1 with either DPP IV or human plasma resulted in rapid degradation of native GLP-1 to GLP-1(9-36)amide, while N-acetyl-GLP-1 and N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 were completely resistant to degradation. N-acetyl-GLP-1 and N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 bound to the GLP-1 receptor but had reduced affinities (IC50 values 32.9 and 6.7 nM, respectively) compared with native GLP-1 (IC50-37 nM). Similarly, both analogues stimulated cAMP production with EC50 values of 16.3 and 27 nM respectively compared with GLP-1 (EC50 4.7 nM). However, N-acetyl-GLP-1 and N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 exhibited potent insulinotropic activity in vitro at 5.6 mM glucose (P< 0.05 to P< 0.001) similar to native GLP-1. Both analogues (25 nM/kg body weight) lowered plasma glucose and increased plasma insulin levels when administered in conjunction with glucose (18 nM/kg body weight) to adult obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice. N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 was substantially better at lowering plasma glucose compared with the native peptide, while N-acetyl-GLP-1 was significantly more potent at stimulating insulin secretion. These studies indicate that N-terminal modification of GLP-1 results in DPP IV-resistant and biologically potent forms of GLP-1. The particularly powerful antihyperglycaemic action of N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 shows potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. {\circledC} 2004 Society for Endocrinology.",
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N-terminal His7-modification of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36) amide generates dipeptidyl peptidase IV-stable analogues with potent antihyperglycaemic activity. / Green, B.D.; Mooney, M.H.; Gault, V.A.; Irwin, N.; Bailey, C.J.; Harriott, P.; Greer, B.; O'Harte, F.P.M.; Flatt, P.R.

In: Journal of Endocrinology, Vol. 180, No. 3, 03.2004, p. 379-388.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - N-terminal His7-modification of glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36) amide generates dipeptidyl peptidase IV-stable analogues with potent antihyperglycaemic activity

AU - Green, B.D.

AU - Mooney, M.H.

AU - Gault, V.A.

AU - Irwin, N.

AU - Bailey, C.J.

AU - Harriott, P.

AU - Greer, B.

AU - O'Harte, F.P.M.

AU - Flatt, P.R.

PY - 2004/3

Y1 - 2004/3

N2 - Glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) possesses several unique and beneficial effects for the potential treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, the rapid inactivation of GLP-1 by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) results in a short half-life in vivo (less than 2 min) hindering therapeutic development. In the present study, a novel His7-modified analogue of GLP-1, N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 as well as N-acetyl-GLP-1 were synthesised and tested for DPP IV stability and biological activity. Incubation of GLP-1 with either DPP IV or human plasma resulted in rapid degradation of native GLP-1 to GLP-1(9-36)amide, while N-acetyl-GLP-1 and N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 were completely resistant to degradation. N-acetyl-GLP-1 and N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 bound to the GLP-1 receptor but had reduced affinities (IC50 values 32.9 and 6.7 nM, respectively) compared with native GLP-1 (IC50-37 nM). Similarly, both analogues stimulated cAMP production with EC50 values of 16.3 and 27 nM respectively compared with GLP-1 (EC50 4.7 nM). However, N-acetyl-GLP-1 and N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 exhibited potent insulinotropic activity in vitro at 5.6 mM glucose (P< 0.05 to P< 0.001) similar to native GLP-1. Both analogues (25 nM/kg body weight) lowered plasma glucose and increased plasma insulin levels when administered in conjunction with glucose (18 nM/kg body weight) to adult obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice. N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 was substantially better at lowering plasma glucose compared with the native peptide, while N-acetyl-GLP-1 was significantly more potent at stimulating insulin secretion. These studies indicate that N-terminal modification of GLP-1 results in DPP IV-resistant and biologically potent forms of GLP-1. The particularly powerful antihyperglycaemic action of N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 shows potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. © 2004 Society for Endocrinology.

AB - Glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) possesses several unique and beneficial effects for the potential treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, the rapid inactivation of GLP-1 by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) results in a short half-life in vivo (less than 2 min) hindering therapeutic development. In the present study, a novel His7-modified analogue of GLP-1, N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 as well as N-acetyl-GLP-1 were synthesised and tested for DPP IV stability and biological activity. Incubation of GLP-1 with either DPP IV or human plasma resulted in rapid degradation of native GLP-1 to GLP-1(9-36)amide, while N-acetyl-GLP-1 and N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 were completely resistant to degradation. N-acetyl-GLP-1 and N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 bound to the GLP-1 receptor but had reduced affinities (IC50 values 32.9 and 6.7 nM, respectively) compared with native GLP-1 (IC50-37 nM). Similarly, both analogues stimulated cAMP production with EC50 values of 16.3 and 27 nM respectively compared with GLP-1 (EC50 4.7 nM). However, N-acetyl-GLP-1 and N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 exhibited potent insulinotropic activity in vitro at 5.6 mM glucose (P< 0.05 to P< 0.001) similar to native GLP-1. Both analogues (25 nM/kg body weight) lowered plasma glucose and increased plasma insulin levels when administered in conjunction with glucose (18 nM/kg body weight) to adult obese diabetic (ob/ob) mice. N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 was substantially better at lowering plasma glucose compared with the native peptide, while N-acetyl-GLP-1 was significantly more potent at stimulating insulin secretion. These studies indicate that N-terminal modification of GLP-1 results in DPP IV-resistant and biologically potent forms of GLP-1. The particularly powerful antihyperglycaemic action of N-pyroglutamyl-GLP-1 shows potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. © 2004 Society for Endocrinology.

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